G toy preferences gender roles may come in part from

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Unformatted text preview: mp; MH Gender Comes From? • Nature and nurture likely interact in the development of most gendered traits • Life experiences & genes (Y-linked organizational/ brain effects, Y-activational/puberty, and other direct effects) interact in complex ways to influence gender-linked behaviors – For example, antisocial behavior in men • We select, create, & evoke gendered situations • Biological predispositions and gender role socialization probably act in an additive manner to influence gender (e.g., toy preferences) Gender Roles May Come (in part) from Sex Differences • Sex (or a sex difference) refers to “actual” psychological and physical differences between men and women (caveat of intersex) – Quantifiable, measurable differences consistent with theories and evidence – Usually some “biological” but much “genderedness” varies across cultures Key Illustrative Findings: When sex and gender are at odds • Trangenders are those who possess the anatomy of one sex but prefer the gender identity of the opposite sex • Transsexuals seek to transition to the opposite sex • Unhappiness caused by discordance between biological sex and gender identity is called gender dysphoria – F-to-M transsexuals (transmen) – M-to-F transsexuals (transwomen) • Autogynephilia subtype (masculine, hard pass, attracted to women) • Homosexual subtype (feminine, easy pass, attracted to straight men) • Transgendered people exist in many cultures • Gender identity clinics follow the standards of care suggested by the World Professional Association for Transgendered Health • During a real-life experience, transsexuals are expected to live in the community for 1 to 2 years as the sex opposite of their biological sex • Some, but not all, transsexuals opt to have sexreassignment surgery M-to-F Vulva Post Sex-Reassignment Surgery F-to-M Clitoris to Penis Post Surgery • Transgenders & transexuals struggle for awareness & acceptance Origins/Causes/Consequences? • Some evidence of “masculine/feminine” brain Dysphoria reduction! But poor mortality… Third Genders are also Common • Fa'afafine of Somoa – Fa'afafine are biologically men who in childhood choose by their nature to be raised to assume female gender roles – Fa'afafine are prominent in all aspects of Samoan society as workers, administrators, educators, church elders, business people, and artists – Fa'afafine are known for hard work and dedication to family, and are often the guardians and caretakers to elderly parents & children of their siblings – Uncle investment study (Vasey, 2009) • Hijras of India and Pakistan – Typically men who live as women (in dress, manners) – Have official legal identity and social functions • Sworn virgins of the Balkans – Women who live as men (can enter male areas, don’t marry) • Many others that vary in degree of transvestism, gender cross-type Many Intersexed Conditions Exist • Intersexual refers to congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical • Hermaphrodite: Person born with both sets of reproductive organs (very rare) • Female pseudo-hermaphrodite – ovaries present, but still some ambiguity of gonads • Male pseudo-hermaphrodite – testes present, still some ambiguity of gonads Sex/Gender-Related Conditions • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) – Girls exposed male-type levels of hormones in utero, affects genitals/cognit...
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This note was uploaded on 05/03/2013 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 309 taught by Professor Davidp.schmitt during the Spring '13 term at Bradley.

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