Patriarchy in all countries adjectives associated

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Unformatted text preview: eing stronger and more active Some Beliefs about Gender Roles are Universal • Williams and Best (1982) studied 30 countries and found high pancultural agreement on the adjectives used to describe typical males and females – Gender roles transcend culture (kernel of truth? patriarchy?) – In all countries, adjectives associated with men were rated as being stronger and more active • Follow-up studies confirmed gender roles (stereotypes about typical male and female personalities) around the world to be stable (Georgas et al., 2006, 27 nations) – Men are viewed as active, strong, conscientious, extraverted – Women are viewed as passive, weak, nurturing, agreeable, and neurotic (do housework, childcare) Gender Emerges Early (and naturally?) • By 1 year of age most children can distinguish between male and female faces and voices • Children can usually identify their own sex by 2 to 3 years of age • Gender constancy, or the understanding that sex categories are usually permanent, is established by 3 to 4 years of age Gender Comes From? • A primary social influence on gender is the family (and where do families come from?) – Children who have an older sibling of the same sex are more gender-typical than children who have an opposite-sex older sibling – Both imitation and the influence of biological sex seem to influence gendered behavior Gender can emerge late, too • Males with 5-ARD (5 -reductase deficiency) appear female at birth, masculinize at puberty – Activational effects (organizational effects in utero) • Some affected individuals raised as girls develop a male gender identity, indicating a possible role for androgens for gender development • The case of David Reimer suggests gender is not exclusively learned • Boys and girls differ in activity levels, toy preferences, and physical aggression at very young ages • Girls with CAH exhibit some behaviors that are shifted in the masculine direction • Fetal testosterone levels also predict gender behavior in children not affected by CAH • Other primates show similar gendered play behavior • Biology may predispose some learning/cultural experiences of gender, skills/abilities related to gender roles, and perhaps gender roles directly Gender Roles May Come (in part) from Sex Differences • Sex (or a sex difference) refers to “actual” psychological and physical differences between men and women (caveat of intersex) – Quantifiable, measurable differences consistent with theories and evidence – Usually some “biological” but much “genderedness” varies across cultures Gender as a Thought Process • Gender constancy may act as an organizing principle for children to develop sex stereotypes • Sandra Bem’s gender schema theory suggests that children develop polarized schemas of masculinity and femininity – “gender schema” = a cognitive network of assumptions about the personalities and other qualities of men and women • Sexual script theory purports that sexual behavior results from learned role playing Gender Style as Schemas • Gender (or gender role style) defined: – Masculinity: Male-stereotype of agency, strength, and power – Femininity: Female-stereotype of communion...
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