ES380 Review Sheet
Metabolic Adjustments to Exercise
Different requirements, different exercises INC. training, INC. metabolism
Production of ATP
ADP + Pi + energy + heat
Stores in muscle (creatine, phosphate)
Non-oxidative metabolism/gycolitic metabolism
Oxidative Metabolism/Aerobic Metabolism
Maintains cell membrane, keeps life
Energy Stores and Sources
- in 99% of circumference, this level of ATP changes very little.
- 75% at high exercise, INC CP leads to INC short term performance, helps in the
long exercise routine but not short term.
- glucose is only source of substrate. Pyruvic Acid is the end product of Glycolysis.
HK/PFK are critical control points of the glycolitic pathway.
- produces ATP and Lipids. If Pyruvic Acid cant enter oxidative pathway due to
HIGH CO2 or LOW O2 levels, Lactic Acid will be produced.
Pyruvic Acid doesn’t go through Oxidative Pathway for a number of reasons.
Not Enough O2
Already at VO2 MAX, without Lactic Acid, cant get rid of Pyruvic Acid.
Hypoventilation, HIGH CO2, LOW O2
Cardiac Arrest, O2 distribution to body STOPS
Lung Disease (Emphyzema)
Sometimes, you have sufficient O2, but may not be delivering it adequately.
Diseases such as Anemia
Onset of Exercise (takes time for delivery of O2 due to Inc or Dec Intensities.
Increased Lactic Acid buildup (warming up helps lower chance of this)
Glycolysis takes place in the Cytoplasm of the cell
Cell requires INSULIN which enhances glycose.
Liver is used for storage.
Once glucose is in the cell, HK stimulates Glucose-6-Phosphate (stored Glycogen in muscle), enzyme
responsible is SYNTHETASE (which is stimulated by Insulin).
Enzyme breakdown of glycogen for ATP is PHOSPHORYLASE.
Onset of exercise, glycogen will be performed for fast exercise, and immediate energy.
For short/long term performance glycogen is important
- Lactic Acid, Alanine or Acetyl (processed in oxidation and stored in Liver)
: Glycolysis in Training
Short/high intensity exercise will increase Cytoplasmic, glycolitic enzymes
Endurance Training also increases glycolytic stores.
ADP and inorganic phosphate will force HK and PFK to stimulate ATP.
The trained athlete increases O2 capacity, more Pyruvic Acid and less Lactic Acid.
Trained athlete has HIGH PFK stores, Lactic Acid is now formed at much higher levels of