Review for Neuroscience 1 Final Exam

Review for Neuroscience 1 Final Exam - Review for...

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Review for Neuroscience 1 Final Exam Describe the basic cells that comprise the nervous system Nerve Cells o Excitable component of the nervous system o Communicate to muscle cells Glial Cells o Support cells o Non-excitable Describe the basic features of neuronal signaling by considering some structural and functional properties of different segments of the neuron Mature neurons do not undergo proliferation o Most diseases that affect neurons produce only neuronal degeneration Morphologically defined regions o Cell Body 10% of the total cell volume Metabolic center of the cell critical for survival o Dendrites Come off the cell body Receptive portion of the neuron o Axon Conducting element of the neuron Myelin ↑ conduction velocity Each neuron has only 1 axon o Pre-synaptic terminal Transmitting element Excitatory or inhibitory Cajal o Neuronal Doctrine Neurons are the basic signaling units of the nervous system, Neurons are distinct cells Dendrites and axons come off the cell body o Principle of dynamic polarization Information flows in a consistent and precise direction o Principle of connection specificity No cytoplasmic continuity between nerve cells No intracellular communication Nerve cells do not connect indiscriminately Rather, each nerve makes specific connections at precise and specialized points Neuronal Differentiation o Unipolar cells 1 outgrowth Found mostly in invertebrates and some mammals o Bipolar neurons 2 neurites Mostly in the sensory system o Multipolar Neurons More than 2 neurites
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Only 1 axon Neurons can be classified functionally into three major groups o Afferent Carry information in to the CNS o Efferent Carry information out of the CNS o Interneurons Carry information between the afferent and efferent neurons Highest class based on function Describe the basic role of various glial support cells Glial cells are non excitable Roles of glial cells: o Supporting element provides structure and firmness to the CNS o Form myelin o Scavengers During death or injury, glia can remove dead of injured cells o Buffer ions and NT o Development guide migration of neurons o Provides cells that form the blood brain barrier o Have nutritive function Divided into two major classes based on their size o Microglia Extremely small Mobilized during injury “Immune system for CNS” o Macroglia Oligodendrocytes Form myelin in CNS for about 15 axons Schwann Cells Form myelin in PNS for only 1 internodal area Astrocytes Provide all of the roles of a typical glial cell, except make myelin Describe a specialized transport mechanism used to shuttle particles along the axon required to maintain the integrity of distal neuronal components Axoplasmic (Axonal) Transport o Fast Anterograde Transport Depends on oxidative mechanism Microtubules provide the stationary tract on which organelles move
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ES/OT 342 taught by Professor Farkas during the Fall '07 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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Review for Neuroscience 1 Final Exam - Review for...

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