organism notes - Introduction to Biology What is an...

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Introduction to Biology 23/01/2008 09:38:00 What is an organism? An individual living entity What is  cell? A highly organized compartment bounded by a plasma membrane that  contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution I. Biological Theories  a. What is a theory?  o Used to explain something really general or basic o b. What steps are involved in formulating a theory?  II. The Cell Theory  a. Are all organism are made of cells?  o i. Early observations by Hooke and von Leeuwenhoek  came up with a microscope, he looked at many things described bark to describe cells MICROGRAPHIA Leeuwenhoek Fabric man a looks at things in the natural world New microscope Animalcules Little animals ii. Later compounding work of Schleiden and Schwann  o people were wondering if all things were made of cells b. Where do cells come from?  o i. Spontaneous generation vs. cells-from-cells hypothesis 
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1858 Rudolph Virchow cells from cells cells come from other cells o ii. Pasteur’s experiment  he test virchows experiment show the rejection of spontaneous regeneration the theory o as far as is known, all organism are made of cells, and all cells come  from preexisting cells III. The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection –  Jean Baptiste de Lamarck Want to see how species come to be Characteristics can be aquired over a life time or lost over a lifetime Soft inheritance a. What is evolution?  o Species are lrelated to each other and can change through life time  would not be passed on o i. Early observations by Darwin and Wallace  o ii. Common ancestry  all the species had a ancestor on mainland but when colonated  they changed and adapted to how they live descent with modification, gradual of overtime Darwin and finches Main difference was that beak shape was different o iii. Modification of characteristics of species  Wallace proposed that all the species come from a common  ancestor on the mainland So he continued this and said that those in closer proximity to  the common ancestor would be more similar to those than the  ones who are further away from the ancestors
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b. What is natural selection and how does it result in evolution?  o i. Artificial selection as an example  taking the population that is better and getting rid of the species  that is not likely to survive or they species with the better traits  to survive o Natural Selection Individuals of a population with some heritable traits survive and  reproduce better than others o ii.
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