Communications Final Notes

Communications Final Notes - Media and the Press-The press...

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Media and the Press -The press is sometimes called the fourth estate 1. clergy 2. nobility 3. commoners 4. media -Media plays the roll of “witness and watchdog” -Government should be conducted in the open in a democracy -The Body Watch- press core who follow the president around -Watchdog Role -ex: Watergate, White water scandal -Over the government and corporations -Governmental Control of Media -Assign a gatekeeper (press secretary Tony Snow) -Internationally leak information -Ex: Valerie Plane leak -Sources 1. On the record 2. Off the record 3. On background 4. On deep background -Stonewalling -Going a long time without a press conference -Overwhelming information -Packaged productions -Photo opportunities -Message development/word smithing/spin doctors -FDR’s Fireside chats -Explained the steps of the New Deal -Kennedy and Nixon first with television -Newt Gingrich -Used CSPAN to get elaborate fired-up speeches -Politicians show up on Letterman, SNL, commercials -First to use internet in campaign: Howard Dean -Campaigns today: -Youtube, Facebook, myspace, cell phones, second life -Paul Lazarsfeld -Researched who influences who -Media opinion leaders people -Vietnam television -News is entertainment Television News -Television Programs: 1. Satellite
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2. Cable 3. Over the air -Lines per Frame -525 United States, 625 Britain, 1125 United States with HD -Television News -1947: Talking Heads (anchor was head and up) -Newscasts were 15 minutes -CBS and NBC camel news caravan (John Cameron Swacey) -CBS=Douglas Edwards and the News -1948: Introduction of ABC -Meet the Press -1951: See It NOW -News Magazine show -Weekly investigative news show -1963: 30-minute newscasts -Huntley Brinkley Report (NBC) with 2 male newscasters -Walter Cronkite (CBS) -Gatekeeper: Vietnam War, Berlin Wall, JFK -Today: Peter Jennings, Dan Rather, Barbara Walters, Mike Wallace, Chris Wallace, Charles Gibson, Anderson Cooper -1952: Morning News Broadcast (90 minutes-3hours) -The Today Show with Dave Garroway and J. Fred Muggs (chimp) -1967: 60 minutes -1980: CNN: Ted Turner = founder -Birth of 24/7 news -1991: First Gulf War -CNN Effect: care about something happening on the other side of the world that has nothing to do with us -1986: Fox News -1990s: MSNBC, BBC, CBC -Quantity up, quality wavers -Nielsen = TV ratings, Arbitron = Radio Ratings -FCC looking to regulate cable television -Sitcoms, variety shows, game shows -Pat weaver invented spot advertising Radio Communications -AM 535 kHz 1605 kHz -FM 88mhz 108mhz -1860: James Maxwell (Scottish) theorized an electromagnetic radio transmission -1880: Heinrich Hertz (German) tested this theory -1890s: Gugliemo Marconi (Italian) -Secured British patent for wireless technology -Thinking about point to point communications within ships -1900s: Lee DeForest (American) -Created vacuum tube
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-Improved amplification to record voice mass communication of one to many -AM = Amplitude modulation (20s) -FM = Frequency modulation (30s and 40s) -Change how rapidly the waves occur -1927: Radio Act -Established Federal Radio Commission -1934: FRC FCC -Radio Reinvention in the 1950s: 1. Television (steals variety shows) 2. Transistor Radios (smaller and portable)
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