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**Unformatted text preview: **2 −1
−1
−2
−3 r= 1234 4
1−sin(θ− π )
4 Using rotations, we can greatly simplify the form of the conic sections presented in Theorem 11.12,
since any three of the forms given there can be obtained from the fourth by rotating through some
multiple of π . Since rotations do not aﬀect lengths, all of the formulas for lengths Theorem 11.12
2
remain intact. In the theorem below, we also generalize our formula for conic sections to include
circles centered at the origin by extending the concept of eccentricity to include e = 0. We conclude
this section with the statement of the following theorem.
Theorem 11.13. Given constants > 0, e ≥ 0 and φ, the graph of the equation
r= 1 − e cos(θ − φ) is a conic section with eccentricity e and one focus at (0, 0).
• If e = 0, the graph is a circle centered at (0, 0) with radius .
• If e = 0, then the conic has a focus at (0, 0) and the directrix contains the point with polar
coordinates (−d, φ) where d = e .
– If 0 < e < 1, the graph is an ellipse whose major axis has length...

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