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2
1 + i (1 + i)
(1 + i)k−1 Hence, we get
(1 + i) 1 − (1 + i)−k
i Ak = P (1 + i)k−1 = P (1 + i)k − 1
i If we let t be the number of years this investment strategy is followed, then k = nt, and we get the
formula for the future value of an ordinary annuity.
Equation 9.3. Future Value of an Ordinary Annuity: Suppose an annuity oﬀers an annual
r
interest rate r compounded n times per year. Let i = n be the interest rate per compounding
period. If a deposit P is made at the end of each compounding period, the amount A in the
account after t years is given by
A= P (1 + i)nt − 1
i r
The reader is encouraged to substitute i = n into Equation 9.3 and simplify. Some familiar
equations arise which are cause for pause and meditation. One last note: if the deposit P is made
a the beginning of the compounding period instead of at the end, the annuity is called an annuitydue. We leave the derivation of the formula for the future value of an annuity-due as an exercise
for the reader...

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