1. Principles-Epidemiology

1. Principles-Epidemiology - MBI 111 - Microorganisms and...

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    MBI 111 - Microorganisms and Human Disease 1. Principles of Disease and Epidemiology
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    Principles of Infectious Disease Intermicrobial Relationships Symbiosis: a situation in which two populations of organisms interact in a close and permanent association benefits: food, protection, support, other life-sustaining factors Synergism two populations live together and accomplish what neither could alone Lichens: fungus and algae (green algae or cyanobacteria) Mitochondria and chloroplasts in animal and plant cells
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    Principles of Infectious Disease Intermicrobial Relationships Mutualism benefits both organisms gut microbiota in herbivores and termites nitrogen-fixing bacteria living in plant root nodules Bioluminescent bacteria Fish bioluminescence - light (JMC) - dark (JMC) Light-emitting bacteria - light (JMC) - dark (JMC) Lactobacillus in vagina nutrients and production of acid environment E. coli in intestine supplies vitamin K and metabolizes otherwise indigestible foodstuffs Streptococcal species. in throat provide “colonization resistance” to Streptococcus pyogenes
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    Bioluminescence
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    Principles of Infectious Disease Intermicrobial Relationships Commensalism one population benefits, the other neither benefits nor is harmed i.e., normal flora bacteria that inhabit our inner and outer surfaces - benefit to host may be unrecognized Antagonism (parasitism) the relationship is beneficial to one organism, harmful to the other i.e., pathogens bacteria that cause human disease are typical parasites
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    Principles of Infectious Disease Host-Parasite Relationship The Host-Parasite Relationship Infection: colonization of the body by a bacterium Disease: any change from the general state of good health not all disease is due to infection infection does not always cause disease disease (due to infection): infection that produces symptoms Symptoms: effects of infection that are apparent to the person
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    Principles of Infectious Disease Host-Parasite Relationship Why do they cause disease? Pathogens evolved to cause human disease or Disease symptoms develop when equilibrium does not develop between pathogen and host or Humans are accidental hosts of bacteria that normally occupy a different niche All have elements of truth
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    Principles of Infectious Disease Host-Parasite Relationship Normal flora: microorganisms that infect without causing disease an example of symbiosis, either mutualism or commensalism found in several tissues skin oral cavity upper respiratory tract gastrointestinal tract genitourinary tract introduced in the birth canal and gradually acquired from environmental exposure outnumber us 10:1
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    Skin: 10 3 to 10 4 per cm 2 Saliva: 10 6 to 10 7 per ml ONP mucosa: 10 6 to 10 7 per gm Teeth: 10 11 per gm plaque Stomach: NTM Helicobacter pylori!!! Jejunum: 10
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1. Principles-Epidemiology - MBI 111 - Microorganisms and...

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