7. Skin Infection

7. Skin Infection - 7. Common Diseases Transmitted by Skin...

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    7. Common Diseases Transmitted by Skin Infection
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    2 Anthrax agent: Bacillus anthrasis gram +ve spore-forming rod virulence genes on plasmids historical significance : first microbe to be proven a cause of disease first grown in pure culture first to satisfy Koch’s postulates among first used for immunization Soilborne Bacterial Infection Anthrax
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    3 Soilborne Bacterial Infection Anthrax Biological warfare and bioterrorism potential Payload: Spores (50kg) from aircraft Delivery: 2 km upwind of a city of 500,000 Morbidity and mortality: 34,000 sick; 24,000 dead
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    4 Soilborne Bacterial Infection Anthrax 2001: Postal distribution 4 senators, NY Post, NBC 22 cases 11 pulmonary 11 cutaneous 5 deaths prophylaxis: 10,000 people received ciprofloxacin
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    5 transmission : primarily a disease of large grazing animals inhalation of spores while grazing bloodstream invasion spores released from carcass upon decay must cremate or bury body, burn field to reduce transmission Soilborne Bacterial Infection Anthrax
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    6 Georgics Virgil Describing Anthrax) “To death at once whole herds of cattle go; Sheep, oxen, horses, fall; and heaped on high, The differing species in confusion lie, Till, warned by frequent ills, the way they found To lodge their loathsome carrion under ground: For useless to the currier were their hides; Nor could their tainted flesh with ocean tides Be free from filth. ... Nor safely could they shear their fleecy store (Made drunk with poisonous juice, and stiff with gore), Or touch the web; but, if the vest they wear, Red blisters rising on their paps appear, And flaming carbuncles, and noisome sweat, And clammy dews, that loathsome lice beget; Till the slow-creeping evil eats his way, Consumes the parching limbs, and makes the life his prey.”
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    7 pathogenesis : spores rapidly germinate on contact with tissue capsule inhibits phagocytosis produces 3-component toxin PA (protective antigen) binds to cell, transports factors into cell LF (lethal factor) interferes with cell signallling EF (edema factor) causes tissue swelling organs fill with bloody black fluid significant mortality Soilborne Bacterial Infection Anthrax
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    8 cutaneous (skin) anthrax: boil-like lesions with black crusts transmission : contact with contaminated animal products incubation : 2-5 days symptoms : papule necrotic ulcer may have fever, malaise, headache potential blood invasion 20% mortality if untreated treatment: doxycycline, ciprofloxacin (must be given early) vaccine: exists Soilborne Bacterial Infection Anthrax
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    9 gastrointestinal anthrax: rare in humans - lesions on intestinal wall transmission : ingestion of contaminated meat incubation : 3-5 days symptoms : lesions on intestinal wall
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7. Skin Infection - 7. Common Diseases Transmitted by Skin...

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