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11. Emerging Infection

11. Emerging Infection - 11 A Look into the Future Emerging...

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    11. A Look into the Future: Emerging Diseases
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    2 Lyme Disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete first detected in 1981 in gut of infected tick named for entomologist who first cultivated it epidemiology: endemic in in Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, North Central, and Pacific coast cases reported from 46 states in 2006 incidence: first recognized as a disease entity in 1975, in Old Lyme, CT increased from 59 cases to 23,305 cases per year in the US (2005) now the most frequently diagnosed tick-borne disease in the US Emerging and Reemerging Diseases Lyme Disease Willy Burgdorfer
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    3 Emerging and Reemerging Diseases Lyme Disease Epidemiology Lyme Disease (2005)
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    4 transmission: infected deer ticks biological vector transovarian infection infected deer mice no disease deer remain uninfected serve as source of blood Emerging and Reemerging Diseases Lyme Disease
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    5 Transmission humans invade territory of ticks, mice and deer vector : Blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis east of Rockies Ixodes pacificus west of Rockies No other domestic ticks are infected
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    6 Deer Tick Ecology Summer Summer Spring Spring Fall and Winter Fall and Winter Year 1 Year 2 Larva develops Female tick drops off deer host and lays eggs on the ground Larva feeds on small animals, particularly the white-footed mouse, and becomes infected with Borrelia burgdorferi Larva is dormant Larva molts into a nymph–the most aggressive stage Infected nymph bites and transmits Lyme disease to host–another animal or person Nymph grows to adult tick, which feeds on large animals, particularly deer. At this stage, the tick also mates
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    7 Emerging and Reemerging Diseases Lyme Disease Stage One symptoms: first stage Erythema chronicum migrans (ECM) bulls-eye appearance spreads from site of infection (3 -15 in) 3 days - a month to appear subsides in 3-4 weeks not always present (50-80%) headache muscle and joint pain swollen lymph nodes
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    8 symptoms: second stage one week to 4 months later (5-15%)
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11. Emerging Infection - 11 A Look into the Future Emerging...

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