Notes Pages 654-669 - Nikhil Tuteja Notes Pages 653-669...

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Nikhil Tuteja Notes Pages 653-669 Chapter 16: Psychological Disorders Personality Disorders Personality disorders : psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning. Three clusters: anxiety, abnormal behaviors, and dramatic or impulsive behaviors. Avoidant personality disorder : characterized by anxiety and fearful sensitivity to rejection. Schizoid personality disorder : characterized by social disengagement and eccentric behaviors. Histrionic personality disorder : display shallow, attention-getting emotions and strive to gain oth- ers’ praise and reassurance. Narcissistic personality disorder : characterize by exaggerating one’s importance, success fantas- ies, and finding criticism hard to accept. Borderline personality disorder : characterized by an unstable identity, unstable relationships, and unstable emotions. Antisocial personality disorder : a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhib- its a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist. Twin and adoption studies show that antisocial personality disorder is genetically influenced. Antisocial people show little autonomic nervous system arousal and react to stressful situations with lower than normal levels of stress hormones. Children who are impulsive, uninhibited, unconcerned with social rewards, and low in anxiety are more prone to antisocial personality disorder. Antisocial people have reduced activity in the frontal lobes, which hinders cognitive functions such as thinking, judgment, and inhibition. Rates of Personality Disorders An estimated 1 in 6 people suffers from a mental disorder.
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