AP US History Chapter 27 Notes - AP US History Chapter 27 Notes International Relations 1921-1941 The Diplomacy of the New Era Replacing the League

AP US History Chapter 27 Notes - AP US History Chapter 27...

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AP US History Chapter 27 Notes – International Relations: 1921-1941The Diplomacy of the New EraReplacing the League:-Foreign policy during the 1920’s for the United States revolved around the policy of isolationism oMany argued that America turned its back on the rest of the world and repudiated its responsibilities -After Wilson left office, the possibility of the United States entering the League of Nations was next to nothing-Because the United States had rejected the Treaty of Versailles, it had to negotiate a separate peace treaty with the Central Powers oSecretary of State Charles Evans Hughes was able to get Congress to pass legislation in 1921 declaring the war with Germany overoHe then negotiated a separate peace with each of the nations of the Central PowersThe belief was that by making these individual treaties, the United States would gain all of the advantages of the treaty without being bound to its responsibilitiesHughes was committed to finding a replacement to the League that the US would be part of-The Washington Conference of 1921 was designed to prevent a costly and destabilizing naval armament race that was occurring between a number of nations oThe treaty called for the United States, Britain and Japan to reduce the number of vessels each hadoIt also called for a ten-year moratorium on the construction of large warships while calling for the scrapping of 2 million tons of existing shipsoFinally, the Five-Power Pact was signed in February of 1922 and established limits for naval tonnage and a ratio on armamentsFor every five tons of American and British warships, Japan would be allowed three tons while France and Italy would maintain 1.75 tonsoThe conference also produced a number of additional agreementsThe Nine-Power Pact, which continued the Open Door policyThe Four-Power Pact, where America, France, Britain and Japan promised to respect one another’s Pacific territories and to cooperate with each other to prevent aggression -Through protecting the peace, America hoped to also protect its economic interests without accepting international duties-The Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 further increased the possibility of maintaining peace without international duties for the United StatesoWhen the French foreign minister Aristide Briand asked America to join an alliance against Germany, Secretary of State Frank Kellogg instead proposed a multilateral treaty outlawing war as an instrument of national policyoFourteen nations signed the agreement in Paris on August 27th, 1928; 48 other nations later joined the pactThe problem with the treaty was that there was no way to enforce it; Kellogg believed that moral force of world opinion would end all warsDebts and Diplomacy:-Diplomacy was to be used to ensure that America’s overseas trade faced no obstacles to expansion and that, once established, it would remain free of interferenceoPrevention of an armaments race while reducing the possibility of war were steps to this endo

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