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Geo final - Chapter 1 An Introduction to Geology Understand...

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Chapter 1 – An Introduction to Geology Understand the workings behind the scientific method. What are the different steps and the balances and checks associated with the scientific method. o Observation o Hypothesis o Theory o Scientific law The Earth began to differentiate forming a stratified Earth. How does density change with depth? What are these zones (not necessary to memorize depths)? How are these zones (Fig 1.1) grouped to form the Geodynamo System and Plate Tectonic system? Which one makes up the tectonic plates? Which zones are strong and which ones are weak or ductile? o Crust, mantle, core. How old is the Earth? 4.3 million years. What is the theory of plate tectonics? What is the driving force behind plate tectonics? o Convection drives the plates to move. Chapter 2 – Plate Tectonics: A Scientific Revolution Unfolds What type of plate boundary do earthquakes occur at? What type of plate boundary do volcanoes occur at? o Earthquakes occur at- Transform, convergent, and convergent o Volcanoes occur at- transform What are the three main types of plate tectonic boundaries and any subdivisions of each? What are the plate motions relative to each other? What are the stresses associated with each? Are there any features associated with these boundaries (mid-ocean ridge, trench, subduction zone, rift, volcanoes)? Identify the plate tectonic settings for real world examples of the different type of plate boundaries and hot spots (location or mountain range)? (Iceland, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, East African Rift, Red Sea, Cascade Mtn, Andes Mtn, Himalayas, Hawaii, Yellowstone, Aleutians Island Chain, Japan, Gulf of California, Sea of Cortez), San Andreas fault) What determines which plate will subduct? density What are hot spots? Where would you find them? Do they create or destroy oceanic or continental crust? What feature/landform do you find above them? o They are places where active volcanoes are under, they create continental crust. Hawaii. Chapter 3 – Matter and Minerals What is a mineral? o Naturally occurring o Inorganic
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o Crystalline solid What are mineral polymorphs? What are the polymorphs of carbon? (as discussed in class) What is the most abundant mineral group in the crust? o Silicates. Chapter 4 – Igneous Rocks How are igneous rock formed? What are the two types of igneous rock? How does the location where they cool affect the speed of cooling and there crystal size? o Two types of igneous rocks are extrusive and intrusive. o Inside with hot temperatures yield large crystal sizes, and outside with fast cooling yields small crystal sizes. Understand and be able to use (or recognize in slides) the following terms: plutonic, volcanic, intrusive, extrusive, aphanitic, phaneritic, porphyritic, pegmatitic, glassy, vesicular, pyroclastic.
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