Notes Pages 695-709 - Nikhil Tuteja Notes Pages 695-709...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Nikhil Tuteja Notes Pages 695-709 Chapter 18: Social Psychology Social Thinking - Social psychology : the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations - Attribution theory : the theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone’s behavior, of- ten by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition. - Ex: a teacher may wonder whether a child’s hostility reflects an aggressive personality (dispositional attribution) or whether the child is under stress (situational attribution). - Fundamental attribution error : the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. - Ex: Julie may not talk in class, so we assume she is shy, but we notice that she is loud at a party. - David Napolitan and George Goethals found that people attribute behavior to personal disposition even when told the behavior is situational. - We are sensitive to how our behavior changes with the situations we encounter, but we commit fun- damental attribution error when explaining others’ behavior. - Our attributions to people’s personal dispositions or situations have real consequences. Attitudes and Actions - Attitude : a belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events. - Attitudes will guide our actions if (1) outside influences on what we say and do are minimal, (2) the attitude is specifically relevant to the behavior, and (3) we are keenly aware of our attitudes. - Ex: powerful situations can manipulate what we say, people profess general attitudes that contradict their behavior, our attitudes lie dormant if we follow the attitudes and habits of others. - People believe in what they have stood up for, indicating attitudes follow behavior. - Foot-in-the-door phenomenon : the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. - Ex: American soldiers in the Chinese communist prison camps gradually came to favor communism based on their treatment and the tasks they performed. - Role playing affects attitudes in that people gradually take on the personalities they are represent- ing. - Ex: Philip Zimbardo created a prison role play that had to be called off because the “guards” were becoming too violent and the “prisoners” too rebellious and hopeless. - Actions affect attitudes because we are motivated to justify our actions. - Cognitive dissonance theory : the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our atti- tudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern