SociologyLecture2_2011 - Chapter1 (Cont Sociology emerged as a separate discipline in the nineteenth century It was born in a response to 3 big changes

SociologyLecture2_2011 - Chapter1 (Cont Sociology emerged...

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    Introduction to sociology Chapter 1 Sociological perspective (Cont’)
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The origin of sociology Sociology emerged as a separate discipline in the nineteenth century It was born in a response to 3 big changes: 1. A new industrial economy (end of 18 th century) 2. The growth of big cities 3. The new spirit of individualism (individual liberty and rights
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Auguste Comte (1798-1857) Responsible for coining the term “sociology” (1938) Set out to develop the “science of man” that would be based on empirical observation (=positivist) Focused on two aspects of society: Social Statics— forces which produce order and stability Social Dynamics— forces which contribute to social change
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A three-stage historical  development of sociology 1. Theological stage: Society expressed God’s will  (from beginning of human history to Middle ages) 2. Metaphysical stage: Society as a natural rather  than supernatural system (15-17 th  centuries) 3. Scientific stage: Comte applies the scientific  approach (used to study physical world by  Galileo, Newton…) to study society: Society is  understood based on scientific evidence
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Theory A statement of how and why facts are  related Correctly predicts future events Makes the facts of social life  comprehensible and understandable
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Role of sociological theory The job of sociological theory is to explain  social behavior in the real world. Theories guide researchers in their quest to  explain complex facts Example: the study of suicide by Durkheim
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DURKHEIM’S STUDY OF SUICIDE MORE LIKELY  TO COMMIT MALE PROTESTANTS WHO WERE WEALTHY AND  UNMARRIED HAD HIGHER SUICIDE RATES PROTESTANTISM AND INDIVDUALISM LESS LIKELY  TO COMMIT MALE JEWS AND CATHOLICS WHO WERE POOR AND  MARRIED BEING CATHOLIC AND GROUP-ORIENTATION ONE OF THE BASIC FINDINGS:  WHY? THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THESE GROUPS HAD  TO DO WITH “SOCIAL INTEGRATION” THOSE WITH STRONG SOCIAL TIES HAD LESS OF A  CHANCE OF COMMITING SUICIDE
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Theoretical approach In building theories, researchers rely on  one or more of three theoretical  approaches as road maps: A theoretical approach is a basic image  of society that guides thinking and  research
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Major Sociological  Theoretical Approaches Structural- Functional Approach Social-Conflict Approach Symbolic-Interaction Approach 
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Structural -Functional Approach A theoretical approach  in which 
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  • Fall '13
  • Huong
  • Sociology, Auguste Comte

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