Unit 7 Guided NotesDay 1Essential Vocabulary:1.Imperialism:When the political government of one country or nation takes __control_______ of the political, economic, and/or social systems of another country or territory.2.Nationalism:The loyalty, love, and devotion that a people (or population) have for their own __nation______ or __territory______.3.Militarism:The belief that a nation-state or country should keep a strong __projective_______ force and be prepared to use it to promote national interests, especially overseas.Countries and nation-states have practiced imperialism for thousands of years. All of the__empires______ of old that you have ever heard of were imperialists.However, in the 19th century, a new sort of imperialism arose. Whereas in the past some nations simply set up trading and missionary posts (such as Portugal in Africa), now they desired to have_direct________ control over other countries or territories. What were the motivations for the new imperialism of the 19th century?Economic reasons: More markets for the industrial goods produced in the imperialist nations. These nations also benefited from access to _raw materials____________ from the colonizedareas, such as rubber, tin, or petroleum.Nationalism: Rivalries between the industrial nations led to struggles to show _dominance_________. One such struggle was to acquire colonies, whether or not they were economically helpful to the colonizer. The British Empire, for example, claimed territories that required cash outlays that outweighed their usefulness to Britain.Social Darwinism: the scientifically inappropriate application of the biological findings of Charles Darwin to social and political situations. Darwin himself disapproved of this movement. It claimed that colonized peoples were weak, and therefore _inferior________, to the imperialists.Other concepts included: Christian __missionary___________ work, spreading the ideals of democracy and the rule of law, desire to _educate__________ unenlightened peoples, and the necessity of bringing advanced _medical________ practices to backward peoples. How Did the Imperialists Govern Their Colonies?Indirect Rule: _local______ rulers were allowed to maintain their positions of power and status. Example: Great Britain allowed local rajahs in India to rule under their authority. This was cheaper and had less impact on the natives.
Direct Rule: As local rulers resisted, direct rule resulted. Local officials were replaced by __colonial______ officers from the imperializing nation. Example: Great Britain replaced Company rule with the Raj.The new colonial powers did not want their new colonies to develop their own competing __industries_______. Therefore, the colonial powers exported the raw materials from the colonies to feed their own production at home. This created an unfree system with ___low wages_________ and poor working conditions for colonial natives. In some cases, these workers also paid taxes.