The Civil war ended 2 disputes that plagued antebellum US – slavery and denying the right of Southern states to secede.The Civil war started 2 problems – reuniting the North and South and how to deal with the legacy of slavery.13th Amendment – Granted all slaves their freedom.1865Chapter 15Reconstruction 1865-1877I.The Meanings of Freedom A.For southern blacks, an expansive quest (Land, voting and civil rights, and education)A.1.Self-ownership– be left to make their own way.A.2.Autonomous institutions A.2.a.Family A.2.a.i.Reuniting families separated under slaveryA.2.a.ii.Adopting separate gender rolesA.2.b.Church played a central role in the black community. Schools, Social events and political Events.A.1.a.i.Worship – independent black churchesA.1.a.ii.Social events – A.1.a.iii.Political meetings – Black ministers played major role in politics (250 held public office during reconstruction).A.1.b.Schools – education was the next best thing to libertyA.1.a.i.MotivationsA.1.a.i.I.Allowed Blacks to read the bible, prepare for marketplace, and participate in politics.A.1.a.ii.Backgrounds of students and instructorsA.1.a.iii.Establishment of black collegesA.2.Political participation A.1.a.Right to voteA.1.a.i.Central to empowerment and equality.A.1.b.15thAmendmentgave Blacks the right to vote (prohibited governments from denying the right to vote based solely on race.A.1.c.Engagement in political eventsA.2.Land ownershipA.2.a.Blacks felt that freedom was directly related to land ownership.A.2.b.In 1865 Southern Blacks seized property or clamed to be “joint heirs” .
A.2.c.Garrison Frazier said freedom meant placing blacks where they could reap the fruit of their own labor, and take care of themselves. To accomplish this was to have land, and turn it and till it by our own labor.B.For southern whites,freedom was a birthright A.1.Masters without slavesA.1.a.Loss of life – 260,000 men died for the Confederacy.A.1.b.Destruction of propertyA.1.c.Draining of planters' wealth and privilegeA.1.d.Psychic blow of emancipation A.1.a.i.Inability to accept emancipationA.1.a.ii.Intolerance of black autonomy or equalityB.For northern Republicans, "free labor" vision A.1.Middle approach between aspirations of freed people and plantersA.2.Freedmen's Bureau: Congress established it in March 1865 to create a working free labor system. Ended in 1870.A.1.a.The first step Congress took after the 13thAmendment.A.1.b.Establishedto provide social, educational, and economic services, advice, and protection of former slaves.A.1.c.Goals: Establish schools, provided aid to the poor and aged, settle disputes between whites, blacks, and freedpeople, and secure equal treatment in the court systemA.1.d.Achievements in education and health careA.1.d.i.Financed and coordinated northern societies committed to black education.