April 19, 2013 - Sexual Development

April 19, 2013 - Sexual Development - L36 Sexual...

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1 L36: Sexual development Friday; April 19, 2013
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2 Announcements: RL 4 due April 24 in class!! MB 13 due April 22 Format of ±nal exam : 100 MC ques7ons (~±0 from previous material, ~30 from material since exam 3). Focus on major concepts for previous material. Study advice : review previous exams, prac7ce problems, previous study guides, quiz yourself and/or a buddy, work with your UTAs, start studying now! This Gme: start animal reproducGon with sexual development Finishing touches of mRNA transcript Understanding the gene7c code How does transla7on work? Where does transla7on happen? What role does tRNA (transfer RNA) play in transla7on? 3 phases of transla7on Last Gme:
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Sexual DiferenGaGon The process whereby females acquire female - typical traits and behavior and males acquire male-typical traits and behavior. X X Y X Y X X Start with chromosomes/genes Then gonads (testes/overies) Then internal reproductive anatomy Then external reproductive anatomy
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4 Fer7liza7on XX/XY TESTIS OVARY Embryonic gonad (< ± weeks gesta7on in humans) is… Undifferentiated : Has not developed into either a tes7s or ovary and Bipotential : Has the potential to develop into either a tes7s or ovary DiferenGaGon oF the (mammalian) gonads Unlike frst cells o² lungs and other parts o² body, frst cells o² gonad are unique Bipotential gonad formed +SRY -SRY
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Embryonic gonad has 2 layers: Outer layer – cortex Inner layer – medulla Females Cortex develops into ovary Medulla degenerates Males Medulla develops into testis Cortex degenerates DiferenGaGon o± the (mammalian) gonads In humans, gonads diferen7ate around week 6-± oF gesta7on Diferen7a7on is complete and irreversible in mammals Testis Ovary Cortex Medulla male genes female genes
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6 How long does the bipotenGal stage last?
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In some species, gonads diferen7ate, but remain bipotential Males Medulla Forms testes Remnants oF cortex remain DiferenGaGon oF the (mammalian) gonads BipotenGal gonads allow some animals to change sex ±emales Cortex Forms ovary Remnants oF medulla remain
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What are hormones? All animals and plants have hormones Chemical messengers Produced in one tissue or organ (a gland) Afect a diferent 7ssue or organ Can be proteins, lipids, or other chemical Usually released into the bloodstream Genes trigger gonadal diferen7a7on. Gonads diferen7ate bodies via HORMONES * Hormones require receptores (lock and key)
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