Since the outer level contains two s electrons and

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Unformatted text preview: ups) atom Atoms like to either empty or fill their outermost Atoms level. Since the outer level contains two s electrons and six p electrons (d & f are always in lower levels), the optimum number of electrons is eight. This is called the octet rule. octet 52 Keep an Eye On Those Ions! • Electrons are lost or gained like they always are with ions… negative ions have gained electrons, positive ions have lost electrons • The electrons that are lost or gained should be added/removed from the highest energy level (not the highest orbital in energy!) 53 Keep an Eye On Those Ions! • Tin Atom: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p2 Sn+4 ion: [Kr] 4d10 Sn+2 ion: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 Note that the electrons came out of the highest energy level, not the highest energy orbital! 54 Keep an Eye On Those Ions! • Bromine Atom: [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p5 Br- ion: [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p6 Note that the electrons went into the highest energy level, not the highest energy orbital! Try Some Ions! • Write the longhand notation for these: FLi+ Mg+2 • Write the shorthand notation for these: BrBa+2 Al+3 55 (HONORS only) 56 Exceptions to the Aufbau Principle • Remember d and f orbitals require LARGE amounts of energy • If we can’t fill these sublevels, then the next best thing is to be HALF full (one electron in each orbital in the sublevel) • There are many exceptions, but the most common ones are d4 and d9 For the purposes of this clas...
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