Unformatted text preview: e, they must be repelling, so at
least the spin quantum number is different!
least
The Pauli Exclusion Principle says that no two
The Pauli
electrons within an atom (or ion) can have the
same four quantum numbers.
same
If two electrons are in the same energy level,
If
the same sublevel, and the same orbital, they
must repel.
must
Think of the 4 quantum numbers as the address
Think
of an electron… Country > State > City >
Street
Street 26 Energy Levels
• Each energy level has a number
Each
called the PRINCIPAL
called
QUANTUM NUMBER, n
QUANTUM
• Currently n can be 1 thru 7,
Currently
because there are 7 periods on
the periodic table
the 27 Energy Levels
n=1
n=2
n=3
n=4 Relative sizes of the spherical 1s,
2s, and 3s orbitals of hydrogen. 28 29 Types of Orbitals
• The most probable area to find
The
these electrons takes on a shape
these
• So far, we have 4 shapes. They
So
are named s, p, d, and f.
• No more than 2 e assigned to an
No
orbital – one spins clockwise, one
spins counterclockwise
spins 30 Types of Orbitals (l ) s orbital p orbital d orbital p Orbitals
tthisis a p sublevel
his
this is a p sublevel
sublevel
this
sublevel
with 3 orbitals
with 3 orbitals
orbitals
orbitals
These are called x, y, and z
These are called x, y, and z 3py orbital 31 Typical p orbital planar node There is a PLANAR
There
NODE thru the
NODE
nucleus, which is
an area of zero
probability of
finding an electron
finding 32 p Orbitals
p Orbitals...
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 Fall '12
 DVG
 Atom, Electron, Energy, AP Chemistry, Electrons

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