Intermolecular Forces - Intermolecular Forces and Liquids...

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Intermolecular Forces and Liquids and Solids
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A phase is a homogeneous part of the system in contact with other parts of the system but separated from them by a well-defined boundary. 2 Phases Solid phase - ice Liquid phase - water 11.1
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Intermolecular Forces 11.2 Intermolecular forces are attractive forces between molecules. Intramolecular forces hold atoms together in a molecule. Intermolecular vs Intramolecular 41 kJ to vaporize 1 mole of water ( inter ) 930 kJ to break all O-H bonds in 1 mole of water ( intra ) Generally, inter molecular forces are much weaker than intra molecular forces. Measure” of intermolecular force boiling point melting point H vap H fus H sub
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Types of Intermolecular Forces 1. Hydrogen Bond (strongest) 11.2 The hydrogen bond is a special dipole-dipole interaction between the hydrogen atom in a polar N-H, O-H, or F-H bond and an electronegative O, N, or F atom. IT IS NOT A BOND. A H B A H A or A & B are N, O, or F
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Hydrogen Bond 11.2
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Why is the hydrogen bond considered a “special” dipole-dipole interaction? Decreasing molar mass Decreasing boiling point 11.2
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Types of Intermolecular Forces 2. Ion-Dipole Forces Attractive forces between an ion and a polar molecule 11.2 Ion-Dipole Interaction
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11.2
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Types of Intermolecular Forces 3. Dipole-Dipole Forces Attractive forces between polar molecules Orientation of Polar Molecules in a Solid 11.2
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Types of Intermolecular Forces 4. Dispersion Forces – van der Walls forces/London forces (weakest) Attractive forces that arise as a result of temporary dipoles induced in atoms or molecules 11.2 ion-induced dipole interaction dipole-induced dipole interaction
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Intermolecular Forces 4. Dispersion Forces Continued
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