Unit_1_Notes_PPT - Unit#1 Module 2 Introduction to the...

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Unit #1 Module 2 Introduction to the Pre-Columbian Americas Latin America Before Europeans - 33-55 million inhabitants - Variety of cultures/civilizations/languages - Mayas, aztecs, incas - taInos, tupI, caribs, awaraks - guaranI, mapuches, otomI, pueblo How do we gather our historical information? - Texts written by European conquerors and priests (biased) - Surviving texts and codices (of 16th century mostly) - 4 Maya codices (Dresden, Codex, etc.) - Several aztec codices (Florentine C, Mendoza) - Archaeology and material culture; linguistics and epigraphy; anthropology - Cultural memory and cultural resistance (practices) - Weaving patterns, oral traditions - Mayan backstrap loom weaving - Rituals, sacred places and spaces, cosmovisions - Festivals and performances (the Tragedy of the Death of the Inca Atahualpa & the Inti Ravmi) - Inti ravmi - celebrated in Ecuador - Scissors dancers in Peru Aztec Codices - Pre-Columbian forms of literacy during colonial times Module 3 - Why Words Matter “Ancient civilizations” versus “ancient cultures” 3 “high civilizations”: - Mayas, Aztecs, Incas Similarities: Differences: Geographical areas Period of development
Forms of State organization Forms of literacy Module 4: Mesoamerica and the Mayas Periods of Maya civilization Pre-Classic 1000 BC - 250 AD Classic 250AD - 900AD Tikal Post-Classic 900-1524 AD Chichen-itza Mayas in the Classic period - Growth of big cities → control of surrounding rural areas - Expansion of agriculture “de roza” (slash-and-burn) - Organization in autonomous city-states - Development of astronomy and mathematics - Urban monumental architecture - Civic and religious buildings - Public squares - Ball court - Expansion and control of new land by warfare - Increasing long-distance trade Maya Society Decays (around 1500) - Trade disrupted after the fall of Teotihuacan in Aztec hands - Abandon urban centers - Scattered rural settlements - overpopulation/environmental degradation → crisis of agricultural systems - Disruptions in long-distance trade with central mexico - Social unrest - Warfare and destruction - Climate change / drought ?

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