Lecture 12 (Sept 26)

Lecture 12 (Sept 26) - Biological Sciences 110A:...

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Summary overview of glycolysis Anaerobic processes; fermentation Evolution of oxidative respiration Mitochondrion (pyruvate to acetyl-CoA) Citric acid/ Kreb’s/ TCA cycle Total energy production: glycolysis + TCA cycle Core metabolic pathways in the cell Biological Sciences 110A: Introduction to Biology Kendal Broadie Reading in Chapter 5 (179-188) Karp
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Harvesting energy from food: overview of cell metabolism Stage 1 : Breakdown of large macromolecules to simple subunits occurs outside cells (e.g. stomach) Stage 2 : Breakdown of simple sugars to acetyl-CoA, a small energy harvest ( ATP and NADH ) 1. Glycolysis (glucose to pyruvate) in cytosol 2. Pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in mitochondria Stage 3 : Final oxidation of acetyl-CoA to H 2 O, CO 2 in mitochondria, large energy harvest ( ATP, NADH ) 1. Citric acid cycle (acetyl-CoA to CO 2 waste) is used to produce ATP and NADH 2. Oxidative phosphorylation ( NADH to ATP ) using O 2 and releasing H 2 O as waste Same oxidation cycle for all : Fats are broken down by β -oxidation , feeding acetyl-CoA into the citric acid cycle. Amino acids derived from proteins enter this pathway at several points.
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investment return Review of glycolysis Conserved in all cells (appeared early in evolution and retained) Does not require oxygen (anaerobic ancestoral energy-generation)
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Life without O 2 : fermentation regenerates NAD + Glycolysis produces ATP and reduces NAD + to NADH In the absence of O 2 , NAD + is consumed and not replaced (see later lecture) When all NAD + is reduced to NADH, glycolysis halts for lack of an e - acceptor (NAD + is in short supply in cells), and ATP production ceases To allow ATP production (e.g. in muscle during vigorous exercise) a short-cut
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BSCI 110B taught by Professor Due during the Spring '08 term at Vanderbilt.

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Lecture 12 (Sept 26) - Biological Sciences 110A:...

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