VUBio110BSp'08-IntroGeneticVariation 6-POST

VUBio110BSp'08-IntroGeneticVariation 6-POST - No genetic...

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The connection between genetics and evolution population genetics The Modern Synthesis "It is now possible…to redescribe the evolutionary process in the language of modern genetics. Evolution can be broadly defined as a change in the heredity of a population. Population genetics permits an even more precise definition: evolution is any change in gene frequency in a population population ." (Wilson, Edward O. [Honorary Curator in Entomology, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University], et al., "Life on Earth," [1973], Sinauer Associates: Sunderland MA, 1975, reprint, p.772)
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Microevolution changes in the genetic composition of a population requires genetic variation to begin with genetic variation may or may not confer an advantage or disadvantage genetic variation may be discrete (polymorphism; various alleles at one gene) continuous (additive effect of several genes)
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Unformatted text preview: No genetic variation no change! 100% green genes All hypothetical “green/brown” population slides modified from: Evolution 101 (Berkeley) http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/IVA1Microchange.shtml 75% green genes 63% green genes 25% brown genes 37% brown genes Genetic Variation is the “stuff” of evolution Why and/or how do gene frequencies change? Sources of genetic variation in a population • Mutation • Sexual reproduction • Gene flow (migration) Quantifying genetic variation: allele frequencies the gene pool Determining gene (allele) frequencies Designate proportion of alleles in a population as p and q p = 0.8 q = 0.2 p + q = 1 Quantifying genetic variation: genotype frequencies Probability of getting 2 green genes in same individual? 0.8 x 0.8 = 0.64 In reality? 3 or 5 individuals are homozygous for green gene = 0.60...
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