Exam Practice - NAME 1(10 points The main function of TGF...

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NAME: 1 1. (10 points) The main function of TGF- β is dampening an ongoing immune response, such as Treg-mediated suppression. Yet, it is also essential to generate Th17 cells. How can this be possible? What is the key event to generate Th17 cells in vivo and why is this necessary? TGF-b itself has the suppressive function. However, in conjunction with other cytokines such as IL-6, the effect is different. Th17 cells are made in the presence of TGF-b together with IL-6. IL-6 is the key cytokine produced by activated APC, which depends on infection. The sequence would be: (1) Upon infection, (2) APC are activated and produce cytokines including IL-6, (3) activated APC stimulate and direct T cells toward IL-17 producing cells. (4) During the clearance of pathogens, IL-6 would be decreased but TGF-b is still made, (5) this condition (TGF-b without IL-6) favors generating Treg that suppress ongoing immune responses, (7) turn down the immune system, (8) back to the quiescent stage. 2. (10 points) The key aspects of adaptive immunity is its specificity and diversity. Millions of B cell receptor (BCR) species are available to accommodate the antigenic diversity because a BCR recognizes only one specific antigen. Similarly, millions of TCR species are generated. Therefore, if we want to have a diverse antigenic pool for T cells, having millions of MHC species would be ideal. However, both humans and mice can have a limited numbers of different MHC molecules. To study the role of the MHC diversity for
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  • Fall '09
  • Chang,Dunnick,King,Raghavan
  • cells, MHC Tg, Ohmybug, MHC Tg mice

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