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Biology Notebook: 07.04 Muscular, Skeletal, and IntegumentaryObjectives:Describe the structure and functions of the skeletal systemDescribe the structure and functions of the muscular systemExplain how the muscular and skeletal systems work togetherExplain that the largest organ in the body is also body’s first line of defense against pathogensKey Questions and TermsNotesThe Skeletal SystemWhat is the skeletal system made of?Living tissue with several important functionsList and describe the functions of the skeletal system.1.Support: the skeleton’s bones give support and shape to the body2.Protection: bones protect the internal organs of the body 3.Movement: the skeleton has a system ofjoints and levers that coordinate with muscles to produce movement 4.Mineral Storage: bones contain reservesof minerals, such as calcium, that are important to process in the body. Whenever calcium levels in the blood are low, some of the stored calcium is released from the bones 5.Blood Cell Formation: blood cells are produced in the soft marrow tissue that fills the internal cavities of some bones What is the axial skeleton?The bones that support the central axis of the body, including the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage What is the appendicular skeleton?The bones of the arms, legs, pelvis, and shoulder areas Bone StructureDescribe the layers of bone:CartilageSpongy BoneCompact BoneBone MarrowPeriosteumCartilage: a dense and fibrous substance that is strong and flexible andcan be found in the flexible parts of the body such as nose and ear, and where bones meet. Cartilage grows near the growth plates at either end of long
OsteoclastOsteoblastbones, such as those in arms and legs. This is gradually replaced by bone tissue, making the now longer bone stronger. There are no blood vessels within cartilage like there are within true bone. Instead, cartilage cells receive nutrients through diffusion fromthe neighboring blood vessels and tissue.Spongy Bone: a layer of less dense spongy bone may be found under the outer layer of compact bone. Spongy bone is not soft and squishy like a kitchen sponge, but actually a strong network of thin fibers that adds strengthto the bone without adding much weightCompact Bone: beneath the periosteum is a dense layer of compact bone. Nerves and blood vessels run through this layer in channels Bone Marrow: many bones have an inner cavity of soft tissue; yellow marrow is made up of cells that store