World Civ.docx - World Civilizations 1/14 Themes: 1....

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World Civilizations1/14Themes:1.Interaction b/n humans and environment-Demography, etc.2.Development and interaction of cultures-Religions, science, tech, arts, architecture, beliefs3.State buildings, expansion, conflict-Political structures, forms of governments, nations and nationalism, regional, transregionaland global structures & organizations, empires4.Creation, expansion and interaction of economic systems-Agriculture and pastoral production, trade and commerce, travel5.Development and transformation of social structures-Gender roles and relations, family, racial/ethnic constructs, social/economic classes1/16Becoming HumanOut of Africa: Origins mid – 1980s- Africa is in a profound sense of the fountain of human evolution- The genus Homo- evolved 1sthere- Rapidly spread to pop. of Eurasia for 1sttime- Ubiquitous homo sapiens, originally documented here- Fossil RecordsPaleoanthropologists: Concerned with the origins and development of early humansGunter Braver from Germany & Chris Stringer from the UK pointed out fossils from S. & E.Africa.Result: “Single Afr. Origin” contrast to “multiregional” interpretation-DNA comparisons supported the conceptThe Paleolithic Age-Use of stone tools; characterized by a division of labor by sex-Paintings, communication methods, to summon animals?The Neolithic Age-Some 10,000 years ago parts of mid-east began to change form nomadic hunter/gathererculture to a settled agriculture one-This lines up with advances in stone tech-Houses: all same size, plan; suggesting most villagers had same level of wealth/statusEx: Catal Huyuk in Turkey-Agriculture, arts, crafts were astonishingly diversified. Paintings redone regularly anddepicted males and femalesJericho: as early as 12000 B.C.EAround 8000 B.C.E a town of 8-10 acres grew up, surrounded by a massive stone wall withat least one towerAlthough this wall may have been for defense, it is disputed because no other Neolithicsettlement was found with oneMixed agriculture, herding, and hunting – may have traded salt
-Population Increase: larger families, less dangerNeolithic Revolution-When animals and plants were domesticated, live near rivers, relationship between humansand nature changed forever-Learned to harness nature-Earliest societies in mid-east 8000 B.C.E, in China 4000 B.C.E, in India 3600 B.C.E-Agriculture was based on wheat & barley – mid-east, millet & rice- China, Corn inMesopotamiaThe Bronze Age: Birth of Civilization-Major shift 1stnear the Tigris & Euphrates rivers in region of Mesopotamia (Iraq)-Later in Nile river valley of Egypt, then India and yellow river basin of China-This shift was initially associated with the growth of towns alongside villages, hierarchy ofregions in same area-Towns grew into larger urban centers and drew in pop.

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Term
Fall
Professor
ChesterCornell
Tags
Centuries

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