Physiology of the Circulatory System - Shawn Tabrizi Per 5 AP Bio Dreon Lab Ten Physiology of the Circulatory System Introduction Animals depend on

Physiology of the Circulatory System - Shawn Tabrizi Per 5...

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Shawn Tabrizi Per 5 AP Bio Dreon Lab Ten: Physiology of the Circulatory System Introduction: Animals depend on their circulatory system to transport oxygen and other essential nutrients to their cells. Not only this, but the circulatory system allows for the removal of waste products such as carbon dioxide from the cells as well. In this lab, we are investigating the different factors that may affect the rate of respiration of organisms. 1 To do this, we are going to monitor the pulse and blood pressure of human subjects, and monitor changes to these factors as body position changes, or as one exercises. Also, we are looking at the effect of temperature on the heart rate of a small invertebrate, the Daphnia Mangna , and a goldfish. Blood pressure and pulse are connected ideas as blood moving though the blood vessels exerts pressure on the vessel walls, causing a pulse to be felt. 2 The blood pressure is highest in the aorta, which is the major artery in the blood-circulatory system. As the blood goes farther away from the hart, the blood pressure decreases, which means there is a lower pressure in the arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins. The pulse is caused by the expansion of the arteries, which are slightly elastic, and as it grows underneath your skin, you can feel it pass. To measure ones heart rate, we use the standard method of number of pulses per minute, which is equivalent to the number of heart contractions per minute. Blood pressure is caused by the flow of blood against the walls of the vessels; human blood pressure is normally measured in the artery found in the arm called the brachial artery. There are two types of pressure considered when measuring human blood pressure: the systolic pressure and the diastolic pressure. The Systolic pressure is the pressure in an artery during the contraction of the ventricle in the heart cycle; this causes the highest possible pressure in the vessel. 3 The diastolic pressure is the pressure within blood vessels when the ventricles are not contracted, causing the lowest possible pressure within the artery. Blood pressure is measures by measuring both the systolic and diastolic pressure separately, which is why blood pressure is always told as one number over the other, or the systolic pressure over the diastolic pressure. Pressure is measured by the number of millimeters of mercury raised by the pressure, and it is measured by the sphygmomanometer, which is an inflatable cuff that is placed on the upper arm. 4 The cuff is connected to a gauge that measures the pressure. One will also use a stethoscope to hear the flow of the blood through the arm. Inflating the cuff causes the pressure to rise

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