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Study Sheet for Midterm 2

Study Sheet for Midterm 2 - Single gene/Single protein...

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Single gene/Single protein traits - Fall under Mendelian traits - Follow Family patterns of inheritance - Ex. OBO blood groups - Dominance and Co-dominance Blood Types Genotypes Phenotypes Antigens Antibody AA or AO A A B BB or BO B B A AB AB AB None OO O – only can be O if you are homozygous None If you are bllod type O, you have no protien on your cell O is a universal donor A and B In sickle cell traits ..... - Both sickle cell and non-sickle cell trait phenotypes are expressed Co-dominance - Both alleles are expressed in the phenotypes Antigens - If you are blood type A, you have A antigen on the surface of your cell that will create an antibody reaction to another blood type Vaccination - Opportunity to create antibodies without actually contracting the virus - Example: Taking the puss from cow pox and giving it to a normal person prevented small pox because it was a similar virus If you are HIV positive... - You have antibodies in your blood stream designed to find and kill the AIDS virus Locality of blood types - The likelihood of of blood types corresponds to locality - Blood types are clinal, especially blood type O - 100% of Americans are blood type O, yet less frequent in Asia and Europe Agglutination - An antibody will attach to a foreign red blood cell which will make it clump to other cells Antibodies attack the cells bu clumping them together Blood type Rh - 85% of humans have a second protien on the surface of their cell Only significant when Rh negative blood is exposed to Rh postive blood Incompatibility - Most Rh negative women will produce children with Rh positive blood The placenta is the only barrier which is 1-2 cells thick Erythroblastosis fetalis - Mother's antibodies attempt to destroy the baby Anemic – red blood cells are ravaged Rhogam - Antibody Anti Rh – kills the red cells you are receiving before your body does so your body does not produce
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antibodies Titler - Antibody count Shoots up after delivery The Secretor System - Tell body type from sperm or bite Monogenic Recessive Traits: Phenylketonuria (PKU) - 1/10,000 babies are born without the enzyme in our liver that breaks down Phenylalanine - Acid builds in the babies' body and creates irreversible brain damage Autosomal Dominants - The mutation is dominant Huntington's Disease - Very Rare Woody Guthry suffered from it - When he hit 40, he began to tremor Achondroplasia - Dwarfism Autosomal - Not sex-linked Other Monogenic Traits: - Chin Dimple Tongue rolling etc. Ear Wax - Women in Japan with wet ear wax have a higher frequency of breast cancer - Material is re-absorbed back into the breast if you have wet ear wax, where dry ear wax excretes this material DET - A carcinogen that built up in women's breat tissue and they passed it on while breast feeding Particulate - Sex cells separate and than connect in babies Blending - Prior to Mendel, people saw inheritance as simply as a mixing of fluids Polygenic inheritance - The effect of many genes adding together Creates the illusion of blending, yet simply to laws of inheritance -
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