Midterm Notes

Midterm Notes - 1/11 Enlightenment cultural &...

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1/11 Period in European culture ~ end of 17 th th Ends usually in 1789 Movement in intellectual + social political styles Shift in attitudes From one based on faith to one based more on reason From God to human Outlook that relies less on God and moves to the secular world (Cosmos) Explained in terms of theology (using sacred texts) to science Authority to inquiry Geneology solid evidence needed Before, history was a matter of what was written in books by ‘authorities’ (b/c they were ‘ancient’) (Plato, Ciscero, etc. accepted w/o question) Enlightenment Contribution ’founded’ Empirical method Ibn al-Haytham scientist lived around turn of millennium philosopher/scientist Sought to answer which one was reality; Light comes from one’s eyes Light comes from object one is looking at into one’s eyes Sought to experimentally find the answer Observe , gather data, establish a claim from enough data Conclusion a universal law Inductive reasoning starting from evidence/data to arrive at a final inference His method was written in a book later translated in Europe Francis Bacon; ‘father’ of empirical method in Europe Philosopher utilized this way of thinking John Locke Essay Concerning Human Understanding Before how human mind worked? Born with a certain set of ideas given by God Allowing us to ‘reason’ through our life “Essential God-given” End of 17 th century John Locke instead believed one is born with a blank state tabula rasa ”erased slate”
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Impressions later gained through life experience We have a faculty that helps organize this data/impressions Seemed by ‘pattern of associations’ Remember and compare Has faculty to process, but doesn’t have ‘essential truths’ Generalized that people do all this by the empirical method Ex. science Isaac Newton, Principia Mathematica Gravity, etc. universal law Exemplified Locke’s ideas Enlightenment opening eyes, using reason to arrive at an inference, not trusting authority/faith blindly Now Ruler legitimacy? (Old=heredity / New=social contracts) Legal agreement between 2 bodies Agreement support for protection (HLR presents state of nature est. contact civil society) Whats wrong with it and how to get out of it 1/14 Documents establish a new view of political legitimacy Refers to source of a ruler’s power over a group of people ”New” general Enlightenment principle Depart from traditional theories before this time (Before legitimacy based on
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Midterm Notes - 1/11 Enlightenment cultural &...

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