chapter 8 answers

chapter 8 answers - “3 .10 (ms meissfip‘ {Ne} Li ELL...

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Unformatted text preview: “3 .10 (ms meissfip‘ {Ne} Li ELL unpaired 35 31) (c) n [Xeles‘4t‘45dwsp‘ [Xe] 3 3333333 33333 L lunpaired 65 4r 5d 69 SE60 See Sam's" 8.1. Figure 8.1 and Example 3.3. ‘V’ (a) Y” has 36 electrons. three fewer than Y: [Kr]. (1:) Br' has 35 electrons one more than Br: [Armor 041:6 or [Kr]. (c) Rh" has 43 electrons. two fewer than Rh: new”. Note: The electron of highest 11 value. the 551 electron. is removed first in forming Rh:+ from Rh. \ (lens , See Section 11. figure 11. mu a1. and Daimler er. a3. '7 \ ,\ [ArlSd‘ [Ar] 3 T_ T L 1 4unpairedelectrons ) Co" _ 3d [KrESSZMW o unpaired electrons (c) Ru; [1014.16 [Kr] L L T_ 1 4unpaired electrons (at Be < Li < Na Size generally decreases as eflective nuclear charge increases from left to right in a given period and generally increases as more shells are added going down a given group. L 4d See Section 12. Figure 3.3. and Example a. 5. (b) F < N < P Size generally decreases as eficctivc nuclear charge increases from left to right in a given period and generally increases as more shells are Added going down a given group. (c) O < I < Sn Size generally decreases as effective nuclear charge increases from lefl to right in a given pound and generally increases as more shells are added going down a given group. / 8.86 \ See Sedan (.2. F' m 8.4. 8.8. and Examples 8.4. 8.5. \_/ (a) F 4: F < O" Anions are normally larger than their corresponding neutral atoms because the same number of protons are exerting a less effective attractive force on more electrons and. there are more electron-electron repulsions in anions. In addition. 01‘ and F both have to electrons and are therefore isoeleetronic. 0“ has fewer protons attracting the same number of electrons as F and therefore has a lower efi‘ecuve nuclear charge. (I!) A1’*<Mg< Na Size generallydecreasesasefl'ectivcnuclearchargeinueasesfmmlefito rightina given period and generally increases as more shells are added going down a given group In addition cations are normally smaller than their compounding neutral atoms, because the same numbers of protons are exerting an attractive force on fewer electrons and there are less electron-electron repulsion: in the cations. fic) N < P < Si Size generally them as more shells are added going down a group. In addition. size zenemllv decreases as efi'ective nuclear charge increases from 1:3 to right in a given period nuclear Charge unu ueueusmg au—n a...“ ...-.--_ _ a. I increasmg Size going down a given group in the periodic from Br to I. so l has a higher ionization energy than K, table. The increase from K to Br donunates the decrease 00) Al‘ has a higher ionization than Al. Al’ has the same number of protons as Al attracting one less electron and therefore has a higher effective nuclear charge and smaller size than Al. (c) Ar has a higher ionization energy than 0'. Ar and C1’ are isoelectronic. However. Ar has one more proton attracting the same number of electrons and therefore has a higher effective nuclear chztrge and smaller size than Cl' 8.98 \ Sea Sem‘on 8.3. Figures 8.12, 8.13. and Example 3.6. (a) K < Se < S This order is one of decreasing size. 0:) Cr < As < O This order is one of decreasing size, (c) 0' < O < F This order is one of decreasing size. ‘ 8.108} 32: Sector: 3.5. 7 \/ (a) 4Llls) + O:(g) _. 2Li;O(s) (b) 6Li(s) + N203) -* 2Li3N(s) (c) 2Li(s) + (312(3) —> 2LiCl(s) (d) 2Li(s) + 1 H20 (l ) —» 2Li0H(aq) + H1(g) 6/ See Section 8.1. Figure 8.1. Table 8.1. and Example 8.3. cu [m 45‘ 3d” Cu“ [Ar] 39“ No. The electmn configuration of Cu-+ would be predicted to be [Ar] 3d’ whether mung with [Ar] 452 3d“ or [Ar] 45‘ Jtl“J because electrons are removed from the subshell of highest n value first 8.122 ‘. See Section: 8.1. 8.2. and Figures 8.1. 8.8. Electron configuration Element lsz 252 2p‘ B 15: Is2 2p‘ 0 ls2 252 Zp’ F (a) B has the largest size. Size generally themes as effective nuclear increases from lefi to right in a given period. (b) B has the smallest ionization energy. B has the lowest effective nuclear charge and largest size. (e) F has the greatest electron affinity. F has the highest efi‘eetive nuclear charge and smallest siza. sis See Seats» .12. 3.2. 3.3.7 (a) Size: 0 < C < Li (b) First Ionization energy: Li < C < 0 Effective nuclear charge increases from lefi to right in a given period causing the size to decrease and ionization energy to increase. (c) Second ionization energy: C < O < Li Removing a second electron from Li involves removing an electron fmm an inner shell. :1 core electron. (d) Unpaired electrons: Li < C equal to 0 Li [Hel 25' [Hel I_ l unpaired electron 25 /, C [Hel 25: 2p2 [He] Li; L L _ 2 unpalred elections 2s 2p 0 [He] 25:21:!4 [0] E I__ L T_ 2 unpaired electrons 25 2p 8.128 ) See Secrians 3.1. 3.4. u. The given information can be used to deten-nlne the molar mass and identity of the g3: Unbalanced: Mix) 4- 03(g) —> M206) Start With M20. Step l: _2_M(s) + O;(g) —, M206) Balances M. Step2: 2M(s) + ,l/2 02(g) —r M20(s) Balance: 0. Step 3: 4M“) + 02(3) -> 2 M:O(s) Giv: whole number coefficients. Strategy: g0; —» ma! 0; —» mal M a molar massM l mt‘llO2 4 moi M — x —_ 32.0 30, [mol 0; /. = _ — = 6.93 g/mol. so the altali metal is Li. Li [He] 25‘ n 0.176 mol Note: The mass of metal and: formed is equal to the sum of the masses of the metal and oxygen present This tells us the metal and oxygen are present in stoichiomemc amounts. and the problem is not a limiting reactant problem. ?molM=1.-llgOzx =0.l76mol , m_ LZZg ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course CHEM 125 taught by Professor Ellis during the Fall '07 term at NJIT.

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chapter 8 answers - “3 .10 (ms meissfip‘ {Ne} Li ELL...

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