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2 3 how do biological catalysts proteins make

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Unformatted text preview: competition) Questions For Today: 1. 2. 3. How do biological catalysts (proteins) make catalytic binding surfaces? How do you measure catalytic ability of enzymes? Why are proteins so expensive to make? Questions for another day: 1. How do you control catalyst behavior? 2. How does modern life make proteins? 3. How can life improve a catalyst? 4. How can life add a new catalyst? 5. How were the first protein catalysts made? How do enzymes do what they do? Proteins are made of amino acids, but enzymes often carry cofactors that participate in catalysis * * These “coenzymes” are simply substrates ­ they’ re not enzymes. If enzymes are all about “perfect fit” how does life build a shape to match the substrate? How does the cell generate these very particular 3-D shapes? How would we do it? Sculpt it? Carve it? Fold it? Life generates 3 ­D shapes by folding… . …by folding of a 1 ­D precursor Life generates 3D forms through folding of a linear form. How does the polymer form? How does the polymer fold up? How can you predict what a given sequence is going to do? Could you design a protein from scratch? Quite often, the linear forms simply folds itself up into the desired shape. Thus the code for the 3D form (the protein’s t ertiary structure) is hidden in the linear form (its primary structure). The subunit -- a generic amino acid H HO H N C COH R amino Individual amino acids are linked together via “ pep5de bonds” . Proteins vary in length from a dozen to a few thousand amino acids. Each protein has a precise series of amino acids that make up its primary structure. Link a bunch of amino acids together, and you get a long, flexible chain. carboxylic acid One of 20 possible geegaws There are 20 different amino acids These R-groups are hydrophylic CHARGED + POLAR FAT BALLS (= hydrophobic amino acids) CHARGED - ODD BALLS Hydrophobic side chains (R groups) Remember ATP ? --- hydrolysis (splitting) of polyphosphate released energy --- polymerization of PO4 by condensation) (= loss of H2O) cost energy (It’...
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