fractional - Introduction In this experiment two components...

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Introduction In this experiment two components of a binary mixture were separated using fractional distillation. The boiling points of the two unknown substances, unknown M, were found in order to determine the identities of that substance, which was acetone. Theory, Reactions, and Mechanisms Distillation is a purification technique in which compounds with different boiling points can be separated by controlled heating. It involves the conversion of a liquid into vapors which are then condensed back to liquid form. Distillation can be used to separate a mixture of liquids or a liquid from a non-volatile solid. Fractional distillation is used to separate a mixture of volatile liquids that have similar boiling points. These boiling points usually vary by less then 20 o C. In an ideal fractional distillation, two distinct fractions are obtained. The separation of a mixture by fractional distillation occurs because the vapor has a different composition from the liquid from which it distils. The first corresponds to the component with the lower boiling point and the second to the high-boiling point component. If the liquid mixture has a composition identical to that of the liquid, the mixture is called an azeotrope. Azeotropes boil like a pure substance. It is not possible to separate an azeotropic mixture by fractional distillation because no change in composition is achieved by a series of vaporizations and condensations. There are two types of azeotropes, maximum and minimum boiling point. Maximum boiling point azeotropes pressure and temperatures are always at the maximum and minimum boiling point azeotropes are always at the minimum pressure and boiling temperature.
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Boiling point is the temperature at which a liquid turns to a gas. Boiling points are also
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This note was uploaded on 01/08/2009 for the course CHEM 0320 taught by Professor Kazunorikoide during the Spring '08 term at Pittsburgh.

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fractional - Introduction In this experiment two components...

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