SHEG_Japanese_American_Incarceration (1).docx - DOC A...

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DOC A Japanese American Incarceration Timeline 1853-54 U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry sailed gunships into Tokyo Bay and demanded Japan’s government end its centuries-old isolationist foreign policy, throwing Japan into political, and later, economic turmoil. 1880s Laws excluding Chinese immigrants from the U.S. were enacted, causing a labor shortage in Western states. Railroad companies recruited Japanese laborers, and a wave of Japanese immigration to the U.S. began . 1898 The U.S. annexed Hawaii, which had a large Japanese population . 1906 San Francisco passed a resolution that required all Japanese and Korean students to join Chinese students at a segregated school. 1907 The U.S. agreed not to restrict Japanese immigration, and Japan agreed to stop further emigration to the U.S. through the Gentlemen’s Agreement. 1913 California passed the Alien Land Law, forbidding "all aliens ineligible for citizenship" from owning land. Though the law affected all Asian immigrants, it was mostly directed at Japanese. 1924 Congress passed the Immigration Act of 1924, effectively ending Japanese immigration to the U.S. 11/7/1941 Munson Report released (Document B). 12/7/1941 Japan bombed the U.S. Pearl Harbor military base in Hawaii. 2/19/1942 President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, authorizing military authorities to exclude civilians from any area without trial or hearing. 12/18/1944 The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066 in Korematsu v. United States (Document D) . 3/20/1946 The last War Relocation Authority facility, the Tule Lake Segregation Center, closed. Late 1960s The Asian American Movement began. STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu
Late 1970s Japanese American activists started the Redress Movement to get compensation and an apology from the U.S. government for the mass removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. 1980 The Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians was established . In 1983 it issued its report, Personal Justice Denied (Document E). 8/10/1988 President Ronald Reagan signed HR 442 into law. It acknowledged that the incarceration of more than 110,000 individuals of Japanese descent was unjust and offered an apology and reparation payments of $20,000 to each person incarcerated. Document B: The Munson Report STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu
In 1941 President Roosevelt ordered the State Department to investigate the loyalty of Japanese Americans. Special Representative of the State Department Curtis B. Munson carried out the investigation in October and

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