L 5 & 6 - PPT Fungal Structure

pathogenicity disease classification mycosis mycosis

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Unformatted text preview: l disease Mycoses Mycoses systemic subcutaneous dermatoopportunistic Fungal Pathogenesis Fungal Granulomas necrosis abscess formation Hypersensitivity reactions allergic pneumonitis, etc Mycotoxicoses intoxication & tissue damage Systemic Coccidioidomycosis Coccidioides immitis Coccidioides Superficial Athlete’s foot Athlete’s Madura foot Madura (subcutaneous) Pathogenesis Superficial Candidiasis Superficial Mucosal infections (oral & vulvovaginitis) Immunosuppression, contraceptive, antibiotics Skin infections More common in elderly & obese Candidal paronychia Localized inflammation Systemic candidiasis Respiratory & urinary tract infections, candidaemia Germ Tubes—Adherence Germ Candidiasis Candidiasis Opportunistic Onychomycosis Yeast involvement (Candida) Invasive properties Invasive of Candida Lung Candida Virulence Attributes Candida Adherence to tissue & prosthesis (biofilms) Form germ tubes & hyphae (tissue invasion) Extracellular enzymes (break down tissue) Ill-fitting appliances, inadequate oral care, etc Which of the following opportunistic fungal diseases is most likely to be linked to patients who have poorly controlled diabetes? Coccidioidomycosis Cryptococcosis Maduromycosis Mucormycosis Aspergillosis os ad is ur om yc 4M os is uc or m yc os 5A is sp er gi llo si s oc c 3M to c ry p 2C oc ci d io id o m yc os i s 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1C 1 2 3 4 5 30 Cryptococcosis Cryptococcosis Cryptococcus neoformans Encapsulated pathogen Encapsulated Yeast Single or multiple buds Narrow base Polysaccharide capsule Polysaccharide Oral infection in HIV patients (cryptococcosis) Isolation, Culture, Isolation, & Identification Lab ID Considerations Lab • • • • • • Aerobes for most part Submit suitable specimens Safety cabinets for molds Avoid inhaling spores Yeasts grow rapidly Molds may require weeks to mature Common Media Common • Sabouraud’s agar • Potato dextrose agar • Yeasts grow quickly • Molds often require weeks to mature • Yeasts identified biochemically (molds by structure) • Gram stain & Chlorazol Black (India ink & KOH) 10% KOH—direct observation • Histological sections • Latex agglutination, ELISA, nucleic acid detection Chemotherapy Chemotherapy Antifungal Targets Antifungal Cytoplasmic membrane sterols Cell wall components Nucleic acid & protein synthesis Mitotic spindle formation Some Antifungal Agents Some Terbinafine (dermatophytes) Inhibits ergosterol synthesis Keto...
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