Westward Expansion, Indian Wars, and Conflict

Westward Expansion, Indian Wars, and Conflict - Westward...

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Westward Expansion, Indian Wars, and Conflict Manifest Destiny- The Final Push- Land rush call the 1889 Oklahoma Land Run, falls in line with acquiring Native American lands The Homestead Act- passed in 1862, gives to people that will come and settle in territories in the west 160 acres of free land, have to live on the land for 5 years, still homestead acts in the US The Desert Land Act- designed for the Midwest, sells land to individuals at $1.25/ acre, individuals that take advantage of these acts are called overlanders, in most cases these people are white migrants, but also immigrants, also African Americans, Exodusters- trying to get land, start communities of their, traveling from the south, built sod houses, houses out of dirt, constructed out of bricks directly out of prairie grounds The Problem with the West- these folks hoped to recapture to spirit of Jeffersonian Democracy, the US is composed of small farmers, farmer and agriculture directly tied into democracy, problem was that in many cases the fantasy that they’ve created doesn’t meet up with the reality on the frontier, they conceived land in the west to be very fertile with lots of game, they get out to the plains and it’s a lot harder, they are trying to create a farm out of nothing, doesn’t rain a lot and when it does it’s a flood, poor irrigation, very dry land, snakes, spiders, scorpions, they blame others for the poor land, find out that open or public land is often already occupied, in many cases Native Americans and Mexicans, complex web of cultures and societies and they are only the latest wave of migrants, attempt to kick them out Farming Credit Crunch- in the US in the early 1990’s, it was a dynamic time in the economy, farmers get hard hit, they have to do everything, don’t have the money to do that, they start borrowing, they don’t want to be borrowers, between 40-60% of people that migrated west went bankrupt, so they go further west, prices for farming goods dropped, tools to create farms increased Native Americans- government helped the farmers with the native Americans, refer to it as removal, farmers begin settling on Native American land, government decides to go defend these farmers Indian Wars – period of warfare, last of the Indians, Indians in Minnesota, Santee occupy land, treaty from the US government, land that overlanders want begin settling on Sioux territory, over time their land is whittled down to 150 square
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miles, get to the point where they need to start retaliating, attacks on small settlements, the army is sent out under General John Pope, sent out with the specific order to pacify the Indians and work out these problems, has every intention to wipe out the Sioux, kill several hundred people, execute 40 Sioux leaders, sent the others away, similar to the Trail of Tears Sand Creek- similar event in Colorado, had a large group of Cheyenne Indians led by chief Black Kettle, had sworn allegiancy to government, befriended John
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course HIST 106 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.

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Westward Expansion, Indian Wars, and Conflict - Westward...

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