What did Qazaq sultans hope they could gain from relations with the Qing Empire, and did
they achieve what they hoped for?
In the 18th century, the Kazakh Khanate was in a vice between two major powers, the Qing
Empire and Russia. In these conditions, Ablai's main goal was to ensure the independence
of Kazakhstan. Despite the formal citizenship of Russia, Abylai in 1756 began diplomatic
relations with China. This measure allowed:
Stop the colonial policy of Russia.
Prevent aggression from China.
Using the struggle for the throne between the heirs of Galdan-Tseren, Abylai managed to
obtain territorial concessions from the Dzungars. Abylai refused to recognize the primordial
Kazakh lands occupied by Dzungaria for China. After the defeat of Dzungaria, Abylai began
to provide active assistance to its last ruler Amursan in the anti-Qing Dzungar uprising.
According to Noda (p182) the main thing that Qazaq sultans hoped they could benefit from