World History Name ______________________________ Chapter 23- The French Revolution and Napoleon Essential Questions: 1. What were the causes of the ________________________________? 2. Describe the legacy of the the French Revolution and _________________. 1. First Estate - ____________________________________________________ - Owned 10% of the land in France - Provided education for the poor - Contributed 2% of its income to the government - ___________________________________________________ 2. Second Estate - __________________________________________________ - Made up 2% of the population - __________________________________________________ 3. Third Estate - _________________________________________________ - Split into to three sub groups a. Bourgeoisie (__________________________)—bankers, factory owners, merchants, professionals, and skilled artisans. - __________________________________________________________ b. ________________—poorest group. Trades people, apprentices, laborers, and servants. c. _______________—largest group of the third estate, 80%.
- Paid half of their income in dues to the nobles, tithes to the church, and taxes to the king- even paid taxes on salt and other basic staples - All groups from the third estate resented the ______________ and ____________ for their privileges and special treatment II. The Forces of Change - By the 1780’s growing __________________ between the three estates combined with three other factors to contribute to the ______________________________ brewing in France A. Enlightenment Ideas - Enlightenment ideas about power and authority in government were spreading among the third estate - Member of the Third Estate, inspired by the success of the American Rev., began to question ________________________________________________________ - They began quoting and following the ideas of Voltaire and Rousseau- demanding _________________, _______________, and __________________ B. Economic Troubles - By the 1780s the French economy began to decline - __________, ________________________, and a rising cost of living all contributed to the economic problems - The bad weather of the 1780s caused widespread crop failures resulting in a severe shortage of grain- the price of bread doubled in 1789 and _____________ _______________________________________________________________ - Louis XVI had inherited debt from previous kings and he incurred a large debt from helping out in the _______________________________________ - Extravagant spending of Louis XVI and his Queen, Marie Antoinette , also added to the debt problem C. A Weak Leader - A strong leader may have been able to solve these problems - Louis XVI was a very indecisive man and _______________________________ - He paid very little attention to his advisers and had little patience for governing - The queen, _______________________________, only added to the problem- she was very unpopular with the people b/c she was Austrian - she also spent enormous amounts of money on ____________, ____________, _____________ and __________- she even became known as “ Madame Deficit ” - Louis ignored the problem until he practically had no money left- his solution? ________________________________________ - Obviously an unpopular plan, the nobles of the 2 nd Estate demanded a meeting of the Estates-General- _______________________________________________- to approve this new tax.