Psych 111 Unit 4

Psych 111 Unit 4 - 1 Psych 111 Unit 4 Tuesday...

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Psych 111 Unit 4 Tuesday, April 17, 2007 Biopsychosocial model - physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors Health Psychology - study of how psychosocial factors influence health o Promotion and maintenance o Discovery of causation, prevention, and treatment Stress - circumstances that are a threat or perceived threat to one’s well-being, taxing coping abilities Experience of stress is a common, everyday event o Stress has a cumulative nature Even routine hassles can add up, leading to stress Stress is subjective o One’s cognitive appraisals determine what situations are deemed stressful Four Major Types of Stress: Frustration, Conflict, Pressure 1. Frustration : occurs when pursuit of some goal is thwarted 2. Conflict : occurs when two or more incompatible motivations compete for expression (involved in a decision process) a. Approach-approach : forced choice between two attractive goals b. Avoidance-avoidance : forced choice between two unattractive goals c. Approach-avoidance : forced choice about whether to pursue a goal with both positive and negative aspects. 3. Change : alterations in “living” circumstances, including positive changes requiring adjustment -Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) - purpose to measure change-related stress, but actually taps many different kinds of stressors 4. Pressure: real or perceived expectation that one should conform to others’ expectations - Pressure is a predictor of psychological problems Three Basic Responses to Stress… (1) Emotional (2) Physiological (3) Behavioral Emotional Responses Emotional responses usually result from stress Strong emotional responses can interfere with efforts to cope with stress o Strong emotional arousal can interfere with attention, memory retrieval, judgement, decision making However , moderate emotional arousal may enhance coping efforts o Inverted-U-Hypothesis : task performance should improve with increased emotional arousal… until a point is reached where further increases impair task performance. Physiological Responses Fight-or-flight response o Brain responds to stressful stimulus by sending signals to the endocrine system along two pathways 1
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Hypothalamus Pituitary Gland Autonomic Nervous System Adrenal Cortex Adrenal Medulla Secretion of Corticosteroids Secretion of Catecholamines Hans Selye (1936): General Adaptation Syndrome o Model of the body’s response to stress o Posits that body progresses through three stages (1) Alarm - the fight-or-flight response (2) Resistance - physiological responses stabilize as coping efforts get underway (3) Exhaustion - physiological responses are eventually depleted Behavioral Responses Coping - efforts to master, reduce, tolerate demands created by stress. Folks exhibit many different coping strategies
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Psych 111 Unit 4 - 1 Psych 111 Unit 4 Tuesday...

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