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Unformatted text preview: 24/08/2007 15:33:00 Lecture Summary #5 -Bebop Bebop (or simply bop) refers to the innovative playing which began in the early 1940s and reached its classic phase during the late 1940s and early 1950s. Bebop was more complex than swing and required greater technical proficiency to perform properly. The style developed from jam sessions by musicians reflecting Kansas City and New York backgrounds. Bebop is considered the beginning of "modern jazz". General Characteristics typical small ensemble; trio, quartet, quintet. or sextet individualistic; focus on improvisation rather than on complex arrangements increased harmonic complexities through chord alterations and chord substitutions (also called reharmonization of standard songs and standard chord progressions) complex angular melodies and solo lines; heads (melodies) played in unison longer, irregular melodic phrasing usually faster tempos than swing; no longer dance music highly syncopated rhythms; unpredictability lighter rhythm section feel; piano comping style less active, walking bass line is the standard approach; melodic drumming style; kicks, fills and dropping bombs elements of Afro-Cuban music used at times improvisors inspired by 20th century "classical" composers such as Igor Stravinsky and Bela Bartok repertoire included standard songs, 12 bar blues, rhythm changes tunes and original tunes based on the chords from standards Roots of Bebop The concept of Bebop (originally called Rebop) grew out of the "cutting sessions" that became commonplace in the after hours environment of many Harlem nightspots of the 1940's. Most notable was Minton's Playhouse, which became the main hub of activity for this new music and it's bright rising stars- Charlie Christian (gtr), Lester Young (tsx) Charlie Parker (asx), Dizzy Gillespie( tpt) and Thelonius Monk (pno). These sessions served as inspiration for musicians who were seeking to play music that allowed for a wider range of creative expression. Most of these sessions occurred after many of the player's "regular gigs" were over and continued well into the early morning hours. These were the testing grounds for the new style of music and a place where reputations were defended and earned. Important Performers The Three Founding Fathers of Bebop Charlie Parker (1920-1955), alto sax/composer nicknamed "Bird" and "Yardbird"; more than anyone else, he became the driving force behind Bebop and it's associated concepts; he is considered the greatest innovative genius of modern jazz and one of the greatest musicians of...
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- Fall '07