Lecture 1. The Mongol Conquests by Nikolay Tsyrempilov Early Qazaq Khanate →successor to Great Mongol EmpireThe Mongol Empire came to existence as a conglomerate of Turkic and Mongol speaking tribes in the heart of Eurasia that led nomadic way of life and were highly dependent on sedentary cultures around them. In the early 13thcentury these nomadic pastoralists under leadership of Chinggis Khan and his descendants managed to create the largest Empire in the World History. By 1280, it is stretched from Black Sea to the Sea of Japan, from lake Baikal to Hinan integrating Russia, Persia and China in one united political entity. Authority –moral or legal right or ability to rule and control Legitimacykey to state power (Max Weber –eminent German sociologist) 3 formsof authority: 1)Charismatic Leadership 2)Established Tradition 3)Reason, Order & Law Nomadism (as a way of life and economic activity) Nomadic Pastoralists →pastoralism main economic activity seasonal mobility →entire population is mobile Reason: In the arid areas of Central Eurasia cattle breeding offers advantages over agriculture, harsh natural conditions with very cold windy winters and hot draughty summers with amazing climatic aberrations preclude raising crops effectively. One year you can have good crop, but next year next crop can be completely destroyed. Drawback: could not be self-sufficient, the nomadic lifestyle was precarious as the constant migrations prevented them from transporting reserves of food or other necessities, rarely having the luxury of surpluses to take them through difficult times they were extremely vulnerable to the elements (heavy snows, ice and draughts). Royal clan members (chinggisids) only could be elevated to the supreme office of the ruler. The most impressive and injuring tradition of institutionalized ancestry. Reason of success: 1.Army: as nomads, Mongols were professional warriors, intensely trained for warfare from early childhood. Personal skills of a Mongol warrior by far exceeded that of a warrior from a sedentary society. Effective super tribal military organization based on decimal principal was inherited by the Mongols from earlier steppe empires. Mongol army was divided into the units consisting consecutively 10, 100, 1000, 10000 warriors with mutual responsibility, each unit was led by a responsible officer, the head of “tumen”–the unit of 10000 warriors. 2.Communication: improved communication system. The need for quick communication between different parts of the huge empire was the issue of utmost importance. The system of communication called “Yam”is developed in Ögödei’s time and eventually spread over most of the Empire. “Yam”used multiple military posts about 25-30 miles apart, each post had horses and supplies provided by local citizens. The rider on an official business such as carrying information to or from the Great Khan picked up a new horse as long as he reached each new post. By changing horses often, the messenger could cover about 200 miles in one day, just incredible speed for the standard of that time.