Ch 1 introduction to physiology

Ch 1 introduction to physiology - CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO...

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOLOGY Physiology (“knowledge of nature”) - Is the study of the normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts o Including all its chemical and physical processes Anatomy - Is the study of structure, with much less emphasis on function PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS Levels of organization and the related fields of study CHEMISTRY Atoms, molecules MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Cells CELL BIOLOGY Tissues PHYSIOLOGY Organs, organ systems, organisms, pop. of one species ECOLOGY Ecosystem of different species, biosphere Cell - Is the smallest unit of structure capable of carrying out all life processes - Is the collection of molecules separated from the external environment by the cell membrane Tissues - Collection of cells that carry out related functions - Form organs , which are structural units o Organs integrate their functions to form organ systems The integumentary system ( integumentum , covering) - Is composed of the skin - It forms a protective boundary that separates the body’s internal environment from the external environment The musculoskeletal system - Provides support and body movement There are four systems which exchange materials between the internal and external environments
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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOLOGY - The respiratory system , exchanges gases - The digestive system , takes up nutrients and water and eliminates wastes - The urinary system , removes excess water and waste material - The reproductive system , produces eggs/sperm Four other systems extend throughout the body - The circulatory system distributes materials by pumping blood through vessels - The nervous and endocrine systems coordinate body functions o These two systems are a continuum rather than two distinct systems - The immune system is diffuse (spread as a fluid) o Immune cells are positioned to intercept material that may enter through the exchange surfaces or through a break in the skin o They protect the internal environment from foreign invaders SYSTEM NAME ORGANS/TISSUES FUCTIONS CIRCULATORY Heart, blood vessels, blood Transport materials between all cells of the body DIGESTIVE Stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas Breakdown of food, elimination of wastes ENDOCRINE Thyroid gland, adrenal gland
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Ch 1 introduction to physiology - CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO...

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