Ch 3 cells and tissues

Ch 3 cells and tissues - CHAPTER 3: COMPARTMENTATION: CELLS...

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CHAPTER 3: COMPARTMENTATION: CELLS AND TISSUES Compartments are both an advantage and a disadvantage - on the advantage side, compartments separate biochemical process that might conflict with one another o i.e., protein synthesis takes place in one place, while protein degradation takes place in another it also allows, compositions to differ. i.e., lysosme, has an internal pH of 5 which is contained, but if it ruptures, it may kill the cell - disadvantage being o barriers make it difficult to move needed materials from one place to another FUNCTIONAL COMPARTMENTS OF THE BODY Anatomically, the body is divided into three major body cavities which are separated by bone and tissue: - the cranial cavity (or skull) o contains the brain, our primary control center - the thoracic cavity (or the thorax) o is bound by the spine and ribs on top and sides, with the muscular diaphragm on the floor o this cavity surrounds the heart, which is enclosed in a membranous pericardial sac - the abdominopelvic cavity o this cavity is the combination of the abdomen and the pelvis o a tissue lining called the peritoneum, surrounds organs within the abdomen o the abdomen encloses digestive organs (stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, gall bladder), the spleen and the kidneys o the pelvis contains reproductive organs, the urinary bladder, and the terminal portion of the large intestine THE LUMENS OF HOLLOW ORGANS ARE NOT PART OF THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Hollow organs such as the heart, lungs, blood vessels, and intestines create another compartment within the body Lumen
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CHAPTER 3: COMPARTMENTATION: CELLS AND TISSUES - the interior of a hollow organ - the lumen for most organism is not necessarily part of the internal environment of that organ o i.e., the lumen of the digestive tract is part of the external environment o i.e., E. coli resides in the large intestine which is continuous with the external environment therefore, it is not harmful to the host unless it enters the body’s internal environment FUNCTIONALLY, THE BODY HAS THREE FLUID COMPARTMENTS The intracellular fluid - fluid within the cells The extracellular fluid - can be further subdivided, the dividing wall in this case is the wall of the circulatory system o plasma, the fluid portion of blood, lies within the circulatory system o interstitial fluid, lies between the circulatory system and the cells BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES Membranes are tissues: thin, translucent layers of cells - mucous membrane, found in the mouth and vagina - peritoneal membrane, lines the inside of the abdomen - pleural membrane, covers the surface of the lungs - pericardial membrane, surrounds the heart Cellular membrane (plasma membrane or plasmalemma) - consists of double layer (bilayers) of phospholipids with protein molecules inserted in them - general functions of the cell membrane include o physical isolation , separates intracellular fluid inside the cell from the surrounding extracellular fluid o regulation of exchange with the environment
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Ch 3 cells and tissues - CHAPTER 3: COMPARTMENTATION: CELLS...

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