psychology - Introduction to Psychology Learning- a...

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Introduction to Psychology Learning- a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience. Results from our experience and is a long-term change in behavior. Ivan Pavlov- a scientist who presented a neutral stimulus (a tone) just before an unconditioned stimulus (food in mouth). In neutral stimulus then became a conditioned stimulus, producing a conditioned response. Classical conditioning was demonstrated by him. Phobias- an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation. Extinction- the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced. Avoidance learning- the process by which an individual learns a behavior or response to avoid a stressful or unpleasant situation. The behavior is to avoid, or to remove oneself from, the situation. Stimulus generalization- in classical conditioning, the tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned. Little Albert- an experiment showing empirical evidence of classical conditioning. This study was also an example of stimulus generalization. It was conducted in 1920 by John Watson; a child’s fear and their reaction towards loud noises. Spontaneous Recovery- in classical conditioning, the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response. If the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are no longer associated, extinction will occur very rapidly after a spontaneous recovery. Taste aversion- individual has an unpleasant experience during or after eating or tasting a particular food, thus avoiding that food in the future. Operant conditioning- behavior that becomes associated with its consequences. Reinforcement- a positive and negative reinforce. Positive: increases behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, a positive reinforcer is any stimulus that when presented after a response, strengthens a response. Negative: increases behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, a negative reinforces is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. Shaping- reinforces guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. Insight Learning- incorporating new knowledge into old knowledge. “Aha experience”: triumphal moment when an idea becomes crystal clear. Albert Bandura- social learning theory and Bobo doll. Modeling- a process which individuals learn new behaviors through observing other people. Observational learning- learning, which results simply from watching others and does not depend on reinforcement. Aggression-
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSY 121 taught by Professor Williams during the Fall '08 term at VCCS.

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psychology - Introduction to Psychology Learning- a...

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