STUDY GUIDE #3 Anthro 1

STUDY GUIDE #3 Anthro 1 - Chapters 13-16 What was the first...

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Chapters 13-16 What was the first evolutionary step toward modern humans? occurred approximately six million ago years in Africa when some apes began to walk bipedally What were climactic conditions of the earth when the first hominids emerged? earth’s climate took a major drop in temperature and rainfall, forests and jungles throughout the world receded and grasslands (savannas) expanded What is the general picture of hominid evolution for the last six million years? Cladogenesis How is it estimated when humans and chimpanzees last shared a common ancestor? approximately 6-7 million years ago When and where did Australopithecus afarensis live? lived from about 4-3 million years ago Where are all hominids found until two million years ago? Africa What species of hominid was Lucy? female Australopithecus afarensis Why was the discovery of Lucy important to our understanding of hominid evolution? revealed that the first hominids were essentially bipedal apes What morphological characteristics of Australopithecus afarensis indicates that they were bipedal? their feet, knees, femurs, pelvis, and location of their foramen magnums What arboreal characteristics did Australopithecines retain? retained long arms, and long curved fingers Why would Australopithecines retain arboreal adaptations? Also, Australopithecus afarensis was fairly small, males were about five feet tall, and they probably, like chimpanzees, slept in the trees for protection What does the analysis of the teeth of Australopithecus afarensis indicate about their diet? their diet probably consisted of chimpanzee-like foods, leaves and fruit. What two types of Australopithecines existed from 3-2 ma? Robust and Gracile What types of food resources were pursued by gracile Australopithecines? same kinds of food as A. afarensis What species of hominid represents gracile Australopithecines from 3-2 ma? A. africanus What types of food resources were pursued by robust Australopithecines? harder foods, roots, nuts, pithy vegetation, and tubers What cranial and dental characteristics of robust Australopithecines are associated with their
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diet? extremely large molars and premolars, and a wear pattern consistent with a diet of hard foods. Robust australopithecines had concave faces to withstand the pressure of processing hard foods, and large areas of attachment for powerful chewing muscles How long, when, and where did robust Australopithecines exist? until about 1.2. million years ago, and overlapped members of the genus homo. Why is Homo habilis the first hominid to be included in the genus homo? make and use stone tools What type of stone tools did Homo habilis make? Oldowan stone tools What did Homo habilis do with their stone tools? Scavenging
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ANTHROPOLO 1 taught by Professor Rettele during the Winter '07 term at Saddleback.

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STUDY GUIDE #3 Anthro 1 - Chapters 13-16 What was the first...

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