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Running head: 8-2 FINAL PROJECT:RESEARCH INVESTIGATION SUBMISSION18-2 Final Project:Research Investigation SubmissionTiffeney Hope-Marie LongSouthern New Hampshire University
8-2 FINAL PROJECT:RESEARCH INVESTIGATION SUBMISSION2Literature ReviewThe study of the effects prenatal exposure to alcohol and/or drugs has on children, hasincreasingly grown over the past decade.Three studies were reviewed.In the first article,authors’ examined the focused and shifting attention span in children, who were exposed toheavy prenatal alcohol before birth; the authors speculated that when an unborn child has beenexposed to heavy amounts of alcohol, also known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder (FASD),it creates a deficit in their ability to focus or in their overall attention (Mattson, Calarco, & Lang,2006).The results in this study, concluded that there is in fact a deficit in attention for FASDchildren.In the second article, the authors’ gave an overview of learning and behavioral issuesin children that have been exposed to alcohol during the prenatal phase; mainly focusing oncertain function deficits such as difficulty shifting tasks, maintaining attention, and manipulatinginformation in working memory.They also mentioned risk factors associated with drugexposure during the prenatal phase, hoping to give educators a better understanding of thedisorder, so they can incorporate better interventions in the classroom that pertain to the deficitsof the students’ effected (Watson, Westby, & Gable, 2007).The results in this study werepractically the same, with educators’ stating they needed more knowledge about the students thatmakes up this part of the population, along with more training.In the third and final article,authors’ believed that “prenatal exposure to cocaine would be associated with greater frustrationreactivity (shorter latencies to show frustration and more random acts of disruptive behavior),and greater difficulty regulating behavior (longer latencies to approach and attempt the problem-solving task, and fewer problem-solving behaviors),” and, they believed by previous findingsrelated to gender, that the effects would be stronger in boys exposed to cocaine (Dennis,Bendersky, Ramsay, & Lewis, 2006).The results in this study, overall, did show that cocaine
8-2 FINAL PROJECT:RESEARCH INVESTIGATION SUBMISSION3exposure has an effect on problem solving in children who have been exposed, verses childrenwho have not.Each of the above studies, provide insight into the importance of includingcontextual factors when researching prenatal exposure to alcohol and/or drugs in children; thehome environment, poverty, parental stablility, consistent drug use, and other social and culturalaspects play a role in children’s development.The significance of this research stems from theinclusion of contextual factors previously not examined, and the results from this researchprovide opportunites for future research that will benefit the field of psychology.

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