OB Review - Organizational Behaviour Review 2011W Amy Li...

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Unformatted text preview: Organizational Behaviour Review 2011W Amy Li Chapter 1- What is Organizational Behaviour? • What is OB? – Study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups, and structure on behavior within organizations and how such knowledge can help improve an organization’s effectiveness Organizations are a social unit, composed of a group of people that work towards a common goal OB is for everyone and interpersonal skills are important Challenges at the Individual Level - Individual differences – perception values, and attitudes - Job Satisfaction – negatively related to absenteeism and turnover - Motivation – how to motivate to reduce turnover - Empowerment – the extent to how much responsibility is given to the employees - Behaving Ethically – the moral values or principals that guide ones behavior Challenges at the Group Level - Working with others – ability to communicate, think, and solve problems, learn, and work w/others - Workforce Diversity – mix of people in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, disability, age, and demo. Challenges at the Organizational Level - The use of Temporary (Contingent) Employees - Improving Quality and Productivity which measures... Effectiveness is the achievement of goals Efficiency ratio of work output to the input required to produce the work Developing Effective Employees Organizational Citizenship Behavior is going above and beyond for the good of the org. Putting people first – affects both workplace commitment and the bottom line Helping Employees with Work- - - Life Balance Creating a Positive Work Environment Positive Org. Scholarship – concerns how org. develop human strength, foster vitality and resilience,and unlocks potential Managing and Working in a Multicultural World Building Blocks of OB Psychology – individual behaviors. Learning, perception, personality, emotions, training... Social Psychology – The influence of one person on another. Change and group behavior Sociology – Social system which individuals fill their roles. People to their environment/culture Anthropology – The study of societies. Cultures and environments. The Rigors of OB à༎OB looks at Consistencies à༎OB looks beyond common sense à༎Systematic Study looks at relationships and attempts to attribute causes and effects, and draws conclusions based on scientific evidence à༎ Evidence- based Management bases decision on best scientific evidence à༎ Intuition is a gut feeling not necessarily supported by research à༎OB has few absolutes – it isn’t like physics, chemistry, or astronomy where there are laws à༎OB takes a Contingency Approach – it depends on the situation Chapter 2 Perception, Personality, and Emotions 2 Perception – process of how people organize and interpret their impressions to give it meaning Heavily influenced by perceivers personal characteristics. The Perceiver – Attitudes, motives, interests, experiences, expectations The Target – Novelty, motions, sounds, size, background, proximity The Situation – Time, Work setting, Social Setting Perceptual Errors Attribution theory – When we observe ones behaviour and determine if it ext. or int. caused Distinctiveness – How often to they do this in other situations? Internal if more frequent Consensus – How often do others do this in similar situations? Internal if more frequent Consistency – How often did the person do this in the past? Internal if more frequent Fundamental Attribution Theory – Tendency to underestimate externals and overestimate the influence of internals when making judgments about the others Self- Serving Bias – Tendency to think success is because of internal and failures cause of externals Selective Perception – Perception based on ones interest, background, experience, and attitude Halo Effect – Drawing a general impression based on a single characteristic Contrast Effects – someone you recently encountered influences our reaction to someone Projection - - - Attributing ones own characteristics to other people Stereotyping – Judging someone based on the perception of which group the person belongs to Heuristics – Judgment shortcuts in decision- - - making Prejudice – Unfounded dislike of a person based on their belonging to a certain stereotype. Can be harmful Self- Fulfilling Prophecy – You behave based on how you are perceive by others; expectation Personality – Stable patterns of behaviour and internal states that determines how u react/interact. Determine by heredity; environmental factors; situational condition Traits – Enduring characteristics that describes an individual’s behaviour Myers- Briggs Type indicator – Extraverted/Introverted, Sensitive/Intuitive, Thinking/Feeling, Judging/ Perceiving The Big 5 personality Model (EA CEO ß། easier to remember) Extraversion – Degree to which one is sociable, talkative, and assertive Agreeableness – Good natured, cooperative, and trusting Conscientiousness – Responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement orientated Emotional Stability – Calm, self confident, and secure Openness to Experience – imaginative, artistically sensitive, and intellectual Core Self- Evaluation – Degree to which one likes themselves, perceives as capable and effective Machiavellism – Belief that end justifies the means; “use it if it works” Narcissism – Tendency to be arrogant, require admiration, and has a sense of entitlement Self Monitoring – Ability to adjust behaviour to external, situational factors Risk Taking – Persons willingness to take chances Type A vs. Type B – time fighter vs. chill pill. Proactive - - - A person who identifies opportunities, takes initiative, and perseveres until there’s change Emotions vs. Moods – Intense feelings directed at something or reaction to an object vs. less intense and contextual stimulus Emotional Labour – Having to express a certain emotion when you’re at work Emotional Dissonance – Inconsistencies between how someone feels and what they show Felt vs. Displayed Emotions – an individual’s actual emotions vs. required to show in organization Surface Acting vs. Deep Acting – Hiding inner feelings vs. changing within to adjust to setting 3 Emotional Intelligence – Ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures Employee Deviance – Actions that violate the established norms and threaten the organization Affective Events Theory – Emotional response to things that happen at work > job satisfaction Chapter 3- Values, Attitudes, and Diversity in the Workplace Values – basic convictions that a way of conduct is personally or socially preferable • concepts or beliefs that guide how we make decision about any evaluations of behaviours and events • judgement to what is right and what is wrong Rokeach’s Value Survey Terminal Values - - - Goals that individuals would like to achieve during their lifetime Instrumental Values – Preferable ways of behaving Ethics - - - Study of moral values or principals that guide our behaviour and inform right/wrong Hofstedes Framework for Assessing Cultures (GLOBE’s 9 dimensions) Power Distance – accepts that power in an organization is distributed unequally Individualism – People prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups Collectivismà༎tight social framework Masculinity – Traditional masculine work roles Femininity – seeing little differentiation from men and women Uncertainty Avoidance – Society feels threatened by uncertain ambiguous situations and avoids them Long- - - Term Orientation - Emphasizes future, thrift, and persistence Short- - - Term Orientation - - - Emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, a social obligations Generational Differences The Elders – “playing by the rules” belief in order, authority, discipline, moral code, and golden rule Baby Boomers- - - Influenced by civil rights, women’s movement and Vietnam War. (autonomous rebel) Generation X – Globalization, MTV, AIDS, and computers. Happiness, friendship, and pleasure The Ne(x)t Generation – us; high expectation, seek meaning in their work Cultural Differences Francophone vs. Anglophone – collectivist, group, need achievement. vs. individualism, risk taking. Aboriginal – emphasis on conscious decision making Asian Values – power distance, and greater collectivism. “Guanxi” is relations based on reciprocity Attitudes – Positive or negative feelings about an object, people, or events Job Satisfaction – general attitude towards his or her job Key resources: job itself; one’s feeling; money less motivation; positive about themselves Core Self Evaluation person likes himself or herself and if they think they are capable/effect. Organizational Citizenship Behaviour – going above and beyond for the organization Expressing Dissatisfaction – exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect Affective Commitment – emotional attachment to company. Positive Normative Commitment – obligation they feel they need to stay with the company. Negative Continuance Commitment – no other option but to stay. Negative Employee Engagement – An individual’s involvement with, and satisfaction with the company Cultural Intelligence- ability to understand someone’s unfamiliar gestures in the same way as would people from the same culture. Provincial – work best with people of similar background Analyst – analyze a foreign cultures rules to figure out how to interact with others Natural – They use intuition to understand those from other cultural backgrounds 4 Ambassador – They communicate that they fit in, even if they don’t know much about them Mimic – They control actions and behaviors to match others Chameleon – They have all levels of CQ components. 5% of the entire manager population Chapter 4- Theories of Motivation Motivation – Intensity, direction, and persistence of effort to reaching a goal Theory X – people hate their jobs and must be threatened and punished Theory Y – people like their jobs and are self controlled if they are committed to their objectives Intrinsic Motivators – internal desire to do something due to interest, challenge, and satisfaction Extrinsic Motivators – external motivation such as pay or bonuses Needs Theories of Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – Physiological<safety<social<esteem<self- - - actualization ERG Theory – Alderfer’s modification of Maslow’s. Existence, Relatedness, and Growth Motivation- - - Hygiene Theory – Herzberg’s intrinsic – job satisfaction, extrinsic- - - dissatisfaction McClelland’s Theory of Needs – need for achievement. Need for Power. Need for Affiliation Hodgson’s Magnificent 7 principles Expectancy theory – does it even matter if I try? Is it worth it? Expectancy – effort will lead to good performance Instrumentality – Good performance will lead to rewards Valence – Rewards will satisfy his or her needs Goal- - - Setting Theory Goal – what an individual is trying to accomplish Directs attention Regulates efforts Increases persistence Development of strategies and action plans Specific Measureable Attainable Results- - - Orientated Time- - - Bound Self Efficacy Theory (Social Cognitive Theory) Individuals belief that they are capable of performing a task Enactive Mastery Vicarious modeling Verbal Persuasion Arousal Equity Theory – When person compares input to outcome of others and respond to eliminate unfairness Self inside , self outside, other inside, other outside • Change inputs • Adjust perception of others • Change outcomes • Choose a different referent • Adjust perception of self • Leave the field Organizational Justice- overall perception of what is fair in the workplace Distributive – Fairness of the perceived outcome Procedural – Fairness of the process used to determine the outcome Interactional - - - Degree to which one is treated with dignity and respect Cognitive Evaluation Theory – offering rewards that was already intrinsically rewarding decrease motivation Self Concordance – person’s reason for pursuing a goal is consistent with their interests and core values Reinforcement • Continuous – being rewarded each time for doing something 5 • • • • Intermittent – not rewarded for every time the behaviour is demonstrated Fixed Interval Schedule – reward is given at a fixed time interval Variable – reward is given at a variable time interval Fixed ratio – the reward given is at fixed amount of inputs Operant conditioning- which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment Chapter 5 Motivation in Action Providing the Cash- - - Flow Variable Pay Program is where a portion of the employees pay is based on performance Individual Based Incentives à༎ Piece Rate Pay Plan is when you’re paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed à༎ Merit Based Pay is based on performance appraisal à༎ Bonuses is when one is rewarded for recent performances opposed to historical à༎ Skill Based is based on how many skills employees have or how many jobs they have Group Based Incentives à༎ Gainsharing is when improvements in- - - group productivity determine the amount of money shared Organizational Based Incentives à༎ Profit Sharing Plans are where employers share profit with employees based on a formula à༎ Employee Stock Ownership Programs are where employees acquire stocks as part of benefits Problems with Incentives Pay à༎Puts employees into competitive positions à༎Unions get in the way as it is based on seniority and job categories à༎Public sector employees that are working for local, provincial, and federal government à༎Ethical considerations Developing Benefit Packages Flexible Benefits are when employees are allowed to tailor their own packages Employee Recognition Programs. Remember that Motivation Theories are Culture- - - Bound Giving Performance Feedback is important How to Create a Motivating Workplace –Alfie Kohn • Abolish Incentive Pay • Re- - - evaluate Evaluation • Create Conditions for Authentic • Motivation • • • Encourage Collaboration Enhance Content Provide Choice Job Redesign Job Rotation is the periodic shift of an employee from one task to another Job Enlargement is the horizontal expansion of jobs Job Enrichment is the vertical expansion of jobs Job Characteristic Model is model that identifies five core job dimensions Skill Variety – job requires different activities Task Identity – completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work Task Significance – substantial impact on the lives or work of others Autonomy – freedom, independence, and discretion to individual doing work Feedback – worker obtains direct and clear information about their effectiveness Creating Flexible Workplaces 6 Compressed Workweek is a four day week with employee working 10 hour days over two weeks Job Sharing is the practice of having 2 or more workers sharing a 40 hour a week job Flextime is when a core our of work is required but can choose to start later or start earlier Telecommuting is an arrangement where employee does work from home on a computer Chapter 6- Groups and Teamwork Teams vs. Groups – two or more people with a relationship vs. working towards a common objective • Team members share leadership • Share accountability for the work of the team • Develops its own purpose or mission Effectiveness is measured by the entire teams outcomes and goals Types of Teams • Problem Solving Teams – 5- - - 12 that meets weekly to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environm...
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  • Winter '12
  • Kelleher,Angela

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