PH100 Lecture Notes

PH100 Lecture Notes - PH100 Introduction to Philosophy...

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PH100: Introduction to Philosophy September 04, 2012: Introduction to Philosophy What is philosophy? 1 etymology: philosophy (Greek) = philia + sofia (“the love of wisdom”) 2 ordinary use 3 practice of philosophy: what is studied by a certain group of people Philosophy is the discipline or intellectual practice that attempts to explain how everything fits together Walter Sinnott – Armstrong: “philosophy can be defined by a goal or method” Methods conceptual analysis ex) paradox of free will (1) Every act is determined by a prior cause. (2) Some acts are free. (3) Nothing that is determined is free. Claims 1-3 form an inconsistent triad. appeal to empirical findings in psychology, biology, and physics to illuminate traditional philosophical issues appeal to developments in logic and mathematics literature/first-hand testimonies to express their ideas Common thread: philosophers question authorities, scrutinize claims and they argue. Argumentation What is an argument? a pattern of assertion: there is at least one assertion that provides support for another assertion premise: supporting assertion conclusion: supported assertion provide reasons to accept statements or claims, attempted “proof” for an argument > Deductive argument A deductive argument is an argument in which the conclusion logically follows from its premises. In other words, the acceptance of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion. Valid if and only if the conclusion logically follows the premises. Validity is a structural property of the argument: it depends merely on how the argument is put together September 06, 2012: The Turing Test and the Nature of Intelligence Are there any questions you could ask customer service that would allow you to determine whether you are conversing with a human being or a computer? Direct questions (Are you a human being/computer?) Common knowledge questions (Who is the president?) Trick questions (What is the solution to this math equation?) Philosophical questions (What is the meaning of life?) Questions about sensations (What does it feel like to be in love?) Trivia questions (Who won today's game?) Preference questions (What is your favorite movie?)
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Alan Turing (1912 – 1954) British mathematician one of the founders of AI Turing suggested a way of answering the question: “can machines think?” “Can machines think?” → “Can machines pass a certain test?” According to him a machine/computer is intelligent if it could pass the following test: A judge who is located in one room communicates by teletype with a computer in a second room and with a person in a third room for some specified period of time. The computer is intelligible if the judge cannot tell who is who: i.e. he/she cannot discriminate between the two.
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