Q 4 N190 Focus Review.docx - N190 WK 5 Focus Review Cardiovascular What is the size of the heart 5 in long 3.5 in diameter 2.5 in in thickness The

Q 4 N190 Focus Review.docx - N190 WK 5 Focus Review...

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N190 WK 5 Focus Review Cardiovascular What is the size of the heart? - 5 in long - 3.5 in diameter - 2.5 in in thickness The female heart weighs lesser than the male heart What can you easily palpate and auscultated? - the PMI (point of maximum impulse) How does the blood flow in healthy individuals? - Unidirectional (one way) Where can you listen for heart sounds? - Pericardium What is the pericardium? - Double layered sac that encloses the heart What is in the double layer of the pericardium to prevent friction when the heart is beating/contracting? - Fluid What happens when cardiac valves are pathologic? - Forward blood flow is restricted resulting in Regurgitation (backflow) - Creates cardiac murmurs What is the first heartbeat called? - S1 or “Lub” What causes the S1 sound? - Closure of the AV valves, when the ventricles are filled What are the AV valves? - Tricuspid - Mitral Where is S1 most heard? - Apex of the heart (bottom part of the heart) What causes the S2 the second heartbeat (“dub”) sound? - Closure of the semilunar valves; this is when the ventricles empty blood to the pulmonic artery and aorta - Loudest at the base of the heart What are the semilunar valves? - Pulmonic - Aortic Interatrial septum - The septum that separates the R & L atrium
Interventricular septum - The septum that separates the R & L ventricles Grading the heart sounds: 1+ = faint 2+ = normal 3+ = brisk 4+ = bounding Landmarks: - Aortic area o 2 nd intercostal space right sternal border o S2 louder than S1 - Pulmonic area o 2 nd intercostal space left sternal border o S2 louder than S1 - ERB’s point o 3 rd intercostal space left sternal border o S1 = S2 - Tricuspid area o 4 th intercostal space left sternal border o S1 louder than S2 - Mitral area o 5 th intercostal space o 5 th intercostal space left mid clavicular line o S1 louder than S2 What is cardiac murmur associated with: - Tricuspid regurgitation - Tricuspid stenosis - Mitral regurgitation - Mitral stenosis - Aortic regurgitation Regurgitation or narrowing of the valves, you will hear cardiac murmur How is cardiac murmur graded?

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